A Logical Model
The image of a certain program, action or direction that responds to a particular issue is known as a logic model. It demonstrates the sensible connection in funds and in resources which are mainly investment sources, activities that take place and the changes as well as benefits that come about because of the existence of a given relationship (Frechtling, 2007).
Logical models play a crucial role in displaying existing rationale of schedules, directions and sequencers. It is also the root cause of evaluation and monitoring how a program is communicated and managed. In monitoring it, it offers a clear framework as well as a planning strategy of how to reduce the gap between the present and future where a person wishes to be.
This is mainly carried out through the structure that is offered with the help of understanding the directing condition which is a necessity of the sequencer or even the action. Under the program’s management, a logical model reveals the links between actions, materials, resources and results. This makes it foundation for creating an advanced management strategy and the road to development framework just to note and identify the susceptibility in the plan.
Since a logical model is the initial stage in analysis and assessment, it helps in choosing where and when do carry out the evaluation making the entire process efficient and effective. As a communication tool, the model focuses more on the program or action to be employed by staff and other involved personnel. It can also take its setting in the society, a conference or in a small initiative organization.
A mere headache is one of the examples that can be used to demonstrate a logical model. If one has a headache, the experience will tell him or her to buy some pills to help relieve the pain. The logic model in this case demonstrates that the medication must be taken to offer some relief. The result is that the headache goes away and the individual feels better in the end.
How to formulate Indicators (Quantitative or Qualitative) representing the outcomes and outcomes of the headache logic model
Besides the results, this logic model assumes some situations. It assumes that somebody who is sick will have access to medication and has the ability to purchase and take them as prescribed. The outcome of the medication will be as the past encounter of taking medication and no negative effect will be experienced.
Pointers representing the results of the logical model could be as a result of the participation level, the level of activity or the nature of the results whether short term or long term. The results could be described as the advantages that a person, the society or the organization gets after implementing the desired action.
Participation level after taking medication will also illustrate the reach that the sick individual can have. This includes participation in a wide range of activities in their daily lives that couldn’t be engaged in when they had the headache. If the activity or participation level is high, the implemented action therefore becomes efficient.
On the other hand if the activity level is low, the action employed which is taking the pills was not efficient or effective. The aspect is therefore effective in determining the ideal target to employ when designing a clear understanding as well as comprehension of the target group. Therefore, their features before and after the activity have to be considered with a lot of care (Frechtling, 2007).
Such could be accompanied by the person engaging in a wide range of activities including running daily businesses as usual or going to work and engaging in daily chores to demonstrate that the employed action was very effective and had a positive impact in giving back the desired status of health. In terms of the duration that the results last, nature could also be given consideration.
If the headache goes away that comes back, it means the results of model was short term, demonstrating that the pill was not effective. The ideal step to employ would be visiting a medical doctor or a physician for diagnosis of the problem and for prescription of the right dose to help take away the problem. On the other hand, it would mean that the action of taking medication was a long term effect if the headache goes away forever. This means that the model was ideal and effective in the treatment of headache.
On rating of whether long or short term results could be accompanied by the actions below. Many patients being aware of the existence of headache pills would means short term results while reduction in death rates related to headaches such as meningitis could mean long term results (Teorey, 2011).
Steps and Techniques Necessary for Observation and Collection of the Selected Measures
If an organization, an individual or a group wants to collect any information on their own or from external sources; they will need to have sufficient data to determine whether they are making the right decisions. The focal consideration is that they need assurance that the data they collect meets the legislations code and privacy whose purpose is to protect their interests.
The strategies utilized in the collection of information would mean freedom associated with the legislation. The observation, techniques and collection of various measure above to begin with in identifying issues of collective strategies. This enhances the assessment process to understanding what is going on in the environment of such parties. Some parties are also specifically directed to the nature and type of information to collect and other available options if specifically directed to the nature and type of collected information and other choices in determining the information and measures to be collected to achieve their objectives (Hedman, 2004).
This is also accompanied by reviewing all the policies culture to the end (Hedman, 2004). This is additionally accompanied by all policy reviewing; culture review and activity review especially those that are very significant in demonstrating the measures above to the target. This is followed by choosing strategies and setting goals and objectives, which is an ideal step to start up the project. It is also an opportunity that the involved parties desire.
A method and approach to the measures is therefore planned. The goals and methods will come from the ends previously determined on the audience to survey and to collect information from. As a result, the available resources, audiences’ size and the purpose of the measures whether quantitative or qualitative determine this. The use of the measures to collect data will also follow and it helps in addressing challenges that need to be practically addressed and call for attention.
Increased death cases as a result of TB for example could attract measures relating to the epidemic. This includes carrying out thorough evaluation to interpret the guides implied by the scope of the measures. Taking actions on the outcomes of the results from the analysis of the measures is then carried out. It helps to map out the last step in the process and it offers the most ideal action to employ.
The Timeline for Evaluation
Carrying out assessment of the program and choosing the action to be employed is a significant part in the programs management and actions. This is based on the fact that it aids in examination as to whether the desired needs of target audience are addressed accordingly. This also helps to determine whether the objectives of the program have been realized.
The evaluation is carried out on the information logicalness available following research on ideal audience (Poizat, 2000). The assessment is also founded on some crucial planning elements for example goals for the creation of a research design, developing strategies and collection of ideal observations. This further involves posing simple queries to relevant parties to help determine the purpose and research objectives that have been realized.
Such measures are very ideal to the project. Developing evaluation strategies is additionally another way of evaluating whether the project was efficient and relevant. They also determine the kind of information to be collected and if chosen wrongly, which means the parties will not benefit from the correct details desired to make the right observations.
The necessity of research observations is determined by the how relevant or meaningful they are solving the issue focused in the research project carried out.
A critical analysis of the limitations associated by the chosen indicators as well as the level of precision and validity of the measures
Some limitations are connected with the chosen measures above. They mainly focus on qualitative measures and tend to ignore the quantitative strategies to a larger extent. To manage qualitative strategies, it would force a party to employ other measures. Such a move would mean the following steps in choosing the ideal measures, a step that is also time consuming.
It would mean dealing with different projects attracting different measures because the above strategies do not apply to the rest of the project focusing on quantitative data. The cost of doing so is often very high while that of precision measures is relatively low because it involves reduction of conclusions, as per the data collected as per observations made.
The measures are also not specific and involve many people and out of the study carried out on them, the findings are assumed to apply to the entire population (Chmura, 2004). The strategies also have their foundation on different assumptions that may not be applicable in real life.
The legitimacy of the methods is very low. This is determined using the audience’s response following the knowledge they have. The level at which target audience respond to the outcome is relatively low in some cases thus, making the validity of the measures to be disqualified as quality. There are also different ways of increasing the rate of response but this means additional expenses of the project thus making it costly in the end.
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Chmura, A., & Heumann, J. M. (2004). Logical data modeling: What it is and how to do it. New York, N.Y: Springer
Frechtling, J. A. (2007). Logic modeling methods in program evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Wiley.
Hedman, S. (2004). A first course in logic: An introduction in model theory, proof theory, computability, and complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Poizat, B. (2000). A course in model theory: An introduction to contemporary mathematical logic. New York, NY [u.a.: Springer
Teorey, T. J. (2011). Database modeling and design: Logical design. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.