Criminal Justice Paper on The New Era: Homeland Security
In nearly every part of the globe, the outcomes of globalization have generated both losers and winners. Aspects such as socioeconomic disproportions, both within and between nations, and possibly more significant, insufficient civil liberties are largely considered as the primary cause of religious as well as political radicalization. Catastrophic terrorism has continued to be one of the most threats facing the world right now and thus acute interventions needs to be done to combat the issue that affects the homeland security (Kirkland, 25). Therefore, this research seeks to address some serious questions regarding catastrophic terrorism.
How serious is the threat of catastrophic terrorism?
The problem posed by catastrophic terrorism is critical and thus effective measures should be in place to help eliminate such risks. Precisely, when devastating terrorist attack, if efficacious, lead to enormous civilian casualties or even massive disruption within the civil society (Kirkland, 65). Such attacks plausibly could encompass the use biological or nuclear weapons, destruction of communication and information structures, or even coordinated application of conventional explosives (Martin, 30). Hence, preventing such catastrophic attack must be the principal aim of counter-terrorism agencies. In the recent years, the world has seen a proliferation of organized terrorist groups in different parts of the globe trying to disrupt peace in various geographical boundaries. A bigger, disciplined, as well as actively financed terrorist group is needed for efficient execution for catastrophic attacks. Presently, organized terror networks such as ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria), Al Qaeda, Al Shabab, Hezbollah, Hamas, Boko Haram, etc. have continued to disrupt peace in different parts of the world (Martin, 35). Perhaps, many of these terror organizations have international networks to help aid in their operations in various countries as well as the involvement of different nationalities. Multiple attacks orchestrated by various terror groups are perhaps the best example to illustrate the magnitude of how dangerous these attacks have been including American soil (Martin, 40). The 9/11 attack on the US soils that was master-minded by notorious Al Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden left many American dead. Many world leaders condemned the catastrophic event and vowed to work closely in the fight against eliminating all forms of terror organizations. America has also faced recent radicalization challenges that have resulted in massive disruption of homeland security in the past years (Martin, 60). Hence, all these underline the danger that catastrophic terrorism can cause.
Can catastrophic attacks be prevented?
Several years after the September 11 attack, terrorist networks has been able to spread in many parts of the world, gaining favor especially among the current generation, and even cast a shadow on serious action an ever-lasting image across the world. Nonetheless, catastrophic attacks can be prevented when the government and the entire populace engage through effective cooperation. Even though it requires much work and more resources to defeat these terror organizations, the terror networks can be prevented and dismantled. Various policies of the past two regimes in America can be termed prosperous in hunting down the terror networks, dismantling their safe heavens, as well as averting them from executing attacks on American soil (Martin, 65). Despite the hard effort being placed by the government, the terror challenge has developed to be more urgent and even severe, where new powerful groups have established. The terror groups have also redesigned themselves particularly with the use of new technology, mosques and religious schools, the media, fraternal and familial networks to promote their twisted philosophies, justify their violence, as well as convince their followers that glory can be established through mass killing of the innocent populace. Through various actions, the government can prevent catastrophic attacks on American soil. The U.S government should build unglamorous but efficient systems for responsible decision-making that integrate military, civil, as well as intelligence expertise across the chain of command (Martin, 25). Particularly, intelligence sharing should be one of the key areas that are emphasized to help combat catastrophic attacks. The strategy to prevent devastating attacks may encompass four aspects: intelligence and warning, preclusion and deterrence, disaster and consequence management, as well as synchronized acquirement of technology and equipment.
How would a catastrophic terrorist attack affect American homeland security culture?
In a broader sense, American homeland security refers to what the Department of the Homeland Security (DHS), which is supported by federal agencies and has the key aim to avert, respond, as well as recover from catastrophic and terrorist events that disturb the security of the United States of America. The homeland security culture is mostly grounded in ensuring that concerted government effort to avert terrorist attacks on the U.S soil, lower America’s vulnerability to the acts of terrorism, as well as reduce the damage and recover from attacks if they take place (Martin, 34). Nonetheless, this culture would significantly change from the known efforts if catastrophic attacks happen. Even though the United stated seems to be more prepared than many another country in handling catastrophic terror attacks regarding security, military, and even financially following the 9/11 attacks, a lot more still needs to be done to address the issue. More recently, the DHS has been able to resolve numerous cases that aim to interrupt internal security. Radicalized individuals who have attempted to cause deaths on innocent civilian have had their plans thwarted. Therefore, when catastrophic attacks happen, they may affect the homeland security culture in many ways; but more importantly, they may cause stringent precincts on the citizens regarding chemical and other weapons of mass destruction. The current homeland security can be said to be one that exercises preventative type of measures, but in the event of a catastrophic attack, a lot shall change including travel warnings.
Why does the radical right and groups such as sovereign citizens pose threat?
Sovereign citizens and radical right are some of the groups that are regarded as the top terror threats, in particular on the domestic front. Other agencies such as local, state, as well as law enforcement bodies, have also echoed similar sentiments as they pose serious security concerns in U.S. Precisely, these groups pose such threats since they often trust that they can ignore the standard rules and escape without being caught by the long arm of the law(Kirkland, 74). In fact, the government states that these groups are extremists who trust that their individual rights and privileges are under some attack in daily instances such as being told to stop in traffic or even being needed to conform to any court orders. These groups have even lashed at some authorities (Martin, 20). For example, in 2012, a man and his son were alleged to have involved in gunfire exchange with the Louisiana police, in a clash that started with a police officer pulling them on the grounds of breaching traffic laws (Kirkland, 30). In this incident, two officers succumbed to injuries and many other people were also wounded during this clash. The two men were later identified as being sovereign citizen extremists who suggested that police possess no authority over them. Similarly, radical right citizens have also been engaged in some acts that pose serious security threats to the U.S citizens at large. The groups largely want to remain uncontrolled despite doing things that cause security threats. Nonetheless, the DHL as well as other law enforcement agencies haves consistently emphasized the need to have a peaceful society where people from diverse cultures and races live in peace and tranquility. Finally, the department of homeland security must ensure that these terror groups are eliminated from the society since they are capable of doing more harm when left uncontrolled (Kirkland, 30).
In conclusion, catastrophic terrorism is an issue of huge concern in the world right now and thus needs much to be addressed. The paper highlights the danger posed by catastrophic terrorism, its prevention, the threats to American homeland security culture, as well as threats posed by the radical right and sovereign citizens. To avert future catastrophic attacks and safeguard new generation from being exploited by these terror organizations, authorities must find willing partners to assist in establishing significant opportunities for citizens to contribute to the social, economic, and political fabric of their societies in sustainable and positive ways.
Kirkland, Robert. Case Studies in Domestic and International Terrorist Organizations. New York: Cognella, 2015. Print.
Martin, Gus. Understanding terrorism: Challenges, perspectives, and issues. London: Sage Publications, 2015. Print.