Hospitality refers to the process of providing services to other people while demonstrating consistency, excellence, and quality improvement. Hospitality also means profitably while giving value at diverse price levels. This also requires demonstration of unique points of distinction in order to develop a place people can be addressed as exceptional individuals. The place should also encourage people to extend their own personality and style within a huge group of companies providing transport and tourism services as necessary desirable goods and services. The hospitality industry has often relied on elements from traditional management in order to apply the best practices on industry-based specific experiences. This however has not hindered the industry from evolving and achieving various developments. For example, the hospitality industry relies on availability of transportation services to achieve internationalization. This should be coupled with comparative stable marketing strategies to draw attention on social and stable disposable income levels (Peter 1995, p. 29). This research paper will therefore focus on recent developments in contemporary hospitality industry. It will specifically discuss operational, managerial, and legislative issues that influence these developments. More so, it will apply theoretical foundations to discuss the recent developments. Consequently, it will analyze future development trends and find appropriate solutions.
The word hospitality describes a broad field of services. For example, it incorporates food services, conventions, leisure, Lodging, and travel among others. Through authentic kindness and generosity, experiences are created to achieve hospitableness. As a result, customers’ perceptions play a crucial role in determining the levels of quality within the hospitality industry. This further leads to several factors determining changes and evolution of the industry. For example, when the customers’ needs are precise, the industry has to compete in order to meet and fulfill them. The hospitality industry also strives to achieve heterogeneity of customers in order to affirm it values the customers. This is mainly because consumer uniformity is neither acceptable nor possible as the hospitality industry deals with diverse people with different needs, emotions, perceptions, and demands. Lack of uniformity or the aspect of diversity should therefore be used to address operational, managerial, and legislative aspects affecting the contemporary hospitality industry (Lee 2014, p. 3).
Operations within the hospitality industry are based on the aspect of diversity. Enhancing the hospitality industry requires relying on visions promoting equality and improved experiences among the customers. In order to achieve this, it is crucial ensuring operations are undertaken by competent employees. For example, some customers from international global regions appreciate diverse social, economic, cultural, and environmental experiences derived through tourism. In order to observe, appreciate, and derive pleasure from these diverse aspects, it is vital for employees to be pleasant and informed. The industrial policies should therefore promote universality and intercultural activities through entertaining and educative programs and forums. The organizational structure should comprise a workforce achieving racial, cultural, and religious diversity. This guarantees employees are qualified to ensure the customers derive satisfaction (Anne & Andrew 2011, p. 464).
The degree of satisfaction derived within the hospitality industry depends on the operations undertaken by hotels, restaurants, retail stores, transportation services, and recreational activities. Thus, the main operational issue to address should involve analyzing the process of delivering services to customers. This will ensure global competition and market consumption changes improving and expanding the service delivery sector is achieved. The operations undertaken within the service sector should therefore address the following issues. First, the sector ought to ensure it attracts and retains customers. This can be achieved by enhancing the quality of services and degree of satisfaction. These differentiating factors determine how the hospitality environment drives competition. They also influence the process of expanding services. For example, some hotels rely on unique room service deliveries in order to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage. The operations undertaken within the hospitality industry should therefore aim at meeting and exceeding customers’ expectations. This requires the organization structure in the industry relying on delivery of unique, diverse, and exceptional services. This operational issue cannot be identified or addressed and resolved without training. It is vital to train employees in order to ensure they understand the quality of services customers seek from the hospitality industry. Thus, operational issues can also be addressed by understanding and accommodating customers’ perceptions, as trained employees will strive to meet the guests’ values (Anne & Andrew 2011, p. 465).
The hospitality industry should also acknowledge technologies play a key role influencing delivery of services. This is because technologies are the driving force of change. They also present opportunities to achieve greater efficiencies by integrating improved service delivery operations. Thus, effective use of information technologies can achieve significant operational improvements. For example, technologies can enhance operational efficiency by ensuring customers’ orders are placed in a faster better, and cheaper way. More so, technologies can enhance the decision-making process enhancing managerial roles. The hospitality industry should therefore embrace technological growth to ensure operations leading to delivery of quality services are effectively and efficiently undertaken by trained and competent employees (Soultana 2012, p. 2251).
Every organization and industry requires establishing a managerial framework. This framework is vital in analyzing how employees and customers operate. The contemporary hospitality industry therefore has reviewed leadership traits and behaviors in order to influence quality of services offered to customers. The role of managers within contemporary hospitality industry should therefore be allied to delivery of quality services. As a result, contemporary hospitality industry has ensured managers are committed. Managerial commitment can be demonstrated diversely based on various initiatives a competent, skilled, and experienced leader ought to apply. Recently, contemporary hospitality industry has been relying on managerial training, support, rewards, and empowerment to grow and improve. These aspects directly influence how managers will motivate and encourage employees towards addressing, meeting, and fulfilling consumers’ demands and needs. Transformational managerial framework has therefore played a key role in ensuring contemporary hospitality industry is growing and improving. This is because it has been addressing the following managerial issues within the industry (Sandra 2007, p. 3)
Foremost, it has ensured employees within the hospitality industry are enhancing the quality of services being provided to customers. For example, employees are required to ensure the food services are safe and healthy. This involves addressing nutritional and dietary needs among the customers. Thus, transformational managerial framework has played the key role of ensuring customers access a wide range of food services that are healthy in order to meet nutritional and dietary needs. Some customers also present unique lodging requirements. For example, a customer may request for food and transportation services in order to improve the quality of experience. Through transformational managerial framework, the contemporary hospitality industry has had to set aside resources addressing unique needs, demands, and requirements presented by customers. As earlier mentioned, contemporary hospitality industry relies on heterogeneity. Thus, it should also be ready, capable, and empowered diverse unique needs presented by people from different cultural and religious backgrounds (Sandra 2007, p. 4)
Transformational managerial framework however ought to establish priorities in order to deliver quality services. Understanding customers’ needs and wants is vital. This however should not translate to the contemporary hospitality industry managerial framework either overestimating or underestimating customers’ demands. This is because both aspects can strain industrial resources and assets including employees who may fall short in delivery of quality services. Ultimately, managerial framework within the industry ought to functional and objective as well as undertaken in controlled conditions in order to maintain focus on delivery of high quality and improving services (Sandra 2007, p. 5)
According to Jim Butler and Jim Abrams, various states provide diverse legislations influencing the hospitality industry. For example, legislations affecting the hospitality industry in Vegas, Disneyland, and California differ. As a result, customers’ demands differ as the delivery of services is also undertaken diversely. Jim therefore asserts that, legislative developments should be a reminder that the hospitality industry is tasked in taking charge of customers’ needs, desires, and demands. The California Lodging Industry Legislative Awareness Summit was held on April 2009. It sought to assert that, leadership within the hospitality industry should lobby towards developing legislations identifying new developments in the hospitality industry in order to enhance investments. This is because investments determine the level of success in an organization and industry. The hospitality industry should therefore focus on growing investments in order to enhance the levels of success (Jim & Jim 2009, p. 3).
This legislation translates to increase in budget. A viable and dependent budget within the hospitality industry is vital as it allows measurement of demands hence; strive in meeting and fulfilling them. Thus, growing investments in the industry is a guarantee that, hospitality will continue to grow and improve while providing high quality services. More so, the rates of unemployment are bound to decrease, as the hospitality industry will grow providing several employment opportunities to skilled, qualified, talented, dedicated, and experienced employees. Thus, a legislative allied to growth of investments should be consistently and persistently upheld (Jim & Jim 2009, p. 3).
For example, the California Legislature allied to growth of investments has involved introduction of various bills with potential to ensure the California hospitably industry continues to grow and expand. The bills passed through the legislation include increasing employees’ compensations. This is because employees are the backbone of the industry. Thus, they should be valued and appreciated for their skills and talents in ensuring the hospitality industry continues to grow and develop. This should involve remunerating and compensating them equally and fairly in order to encourage and motivate them to maintain delivery of high quality services (Jim & Jim 2009, p. 5).
The employment law should also be amended in order to address various issues affecting the hospitality industry. For example, employees often suffer from various issues posing danger to their health. In Vegas, employees are vulnerable to heat illnesses. Conversely, employees in Disneyland are prone to work related injuries especially those working in an outdoor occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board should therefore be amended to ensure employees are safe as they strive to meet and fulfill customers’ needs. Consequently, employees can serve customers in a safe and healthy environment without further risking their health conditions. Ultimately, the hospitality industry ought to acknowledge that it is unhealthy and unacceptable for inured and ill employees to serve customers. The family and medical leave bill should therefore be amended to ensure employees and customers are protected from providing and receiving services in an unhealthy environment. Consequently, the Alternative Employee Workweeks bill should also be passed across the nations’ hospitality industry as a socioeconomic stimulus. This is because it allows employees to expand alternative workweek options without necessarily triggering overtime pay liabilities. Thus, it provides employees and the industry at large with the opportunity to enhance socioeconomic conditions in controlled conditions simultaneously. Ultimately, legislative issues within the hospitality industry should focus on protecting and safeguarding employees and customers. Consequently, both parties can work together in formulating strategies aimed at improving the industry in a controlled environment promoting equality (Jim & Jim 2009, p. 6).
The theory of unique selling elements is the most appropriate in analyzing the hospitality industry. This theory seeks to identify strategies and approaches to undertake in order for the hospitality industry to stand out. The unique selling elements theory asserts that, the hospitality industry ought to identify the following unique strategies aimed at ensuring it is unique through establishment of the marketing cornerstone. Foremost, the hospitality industry ought to identify distinguishing features enhancing customers’ perceptions. These features include acknowledging famous guests, special food services such as unique fruit juices among other foodstuffs, and unusual designs. The designs are mainly applied in analyzing lodging services. Thus, the hospitality industry ought to incorporate unique and unusual designs such as artifact, contemporary forms of art, and flowers in hotel rooms. The unique selling elements theory can therefore be applied in addressing managerial issues within the hospitality industry. This is because it aims at enhancing customers’ attention with regards to details and measures being undertaken to ensure they derive memorable and pleasurable experiences. More so, the theory is a form of quality control as it aims at monitoring social, economic, and environmental aspects influencing the hospitality industry (Heidi 2014, p. 2).
The supply elasticity theory can also be applied in analyzing the hospitality industry. The theory is based on the fact that industries and organizations offer diverse services. As a result, it evaluates factors affecting the hospitality industry. For example, the quality of services offered should be based on the will, power, and ability to be provided at a particular price for an extended period of time. Chronological demands from customers such as delivery of room service influence the purchasing power. For a healthy and sustainable competitive environment, the pricing levels should be affordable with the ability to meet and fulfill consumer needs. The theory therefore seeks to affirm that, the quantity and quality of services delivered within the hospitality industry should be high, accessible, and affordable (Sheila 2012, p. 91).
The hospitality industry can be described using diverse characteristics. Based on these characteristics, the hospitality industry should therefore identify how future developments ought to be achieved. The first characteristic of the hospitality industry is based on the fact that it strives to provide unique and fun work environments. As a result, the scope of responsibilities to be undertaken by employees is diverse and attainable. The hospitality industry provides a wide range of career options. Thus, it is a viable working environment employees can earn a respectable livelihood. The hospitality industry has an outstanding dimension in the orientation of guest satisfaction levels. It therefore strives to ensure customers derive pleasure hence, prompting them to seek the services in the future for a similar or better experience. The hospitality industry provides intangible and perishable services such as accommodation. They are however not specific which translates to some lost revenues especially during low seasons. As a result, the hospitality industry ought to make continuous efforts in order to maintain a positive image through delivery of high quality services for overall industrial success. Consequently, an on-going guest satisfaction strategy ought to be implemented in order to create customer loyalty while influencing future behavioral intentions (Anne & Andrew 2011, p. 466).
The current developments are based on globalization as it allows people to expand their travelling options around the globe. This however has led to increase in safety and security issues. For example, tourists especially within the Middle East have to be wary of unexpected terror attacks. In other global regions, customers seeking services within the hospitality industry have to deal with robberies, kidnappings, assaults, and theft of properties especially in a foreign nation. Tourists therefore face several security issues within the hospitality and tourism industry, which can hinder them from gaining pleasurable experiences (Soultana 2012, p. 2249).
Foremost, it crucial to enhance security measures within the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry should therefore identify operations critically addressing and mitigating security issues and disasters especially affecting tourist in foreign nations. As a result, the hospitality industry ought to deliver personal security to all the customers. It is however, crucial noting that, some tourists can be more vulnerable to incidences posing danger to their lives. For example, famous people or celebrities often attract more attention even in foreign lands. The hospitality industry should therefore formulate measures ensuring such people maintain personal privacy. This will play a key role in enhancing their personal security as well as criminals will neither acknowledge nor pursue them with intent to harm or steal their valuables (Soultana 2012, p. 2249).
The hospitality industry also relies on diversity to survive, grow, and expand. Diversity is achieved by employing a wide range of workers with different skills and talents. It is also achieved by addressing different and unique needs presented by customers from various destinations around the globe. As a result, the hospitality industry ought to present unique opportunities in order to understand diverse cultural, religious, and racial experiences being pursued by customers. Consequently, it can understand and appreciate diverse measures to meet customers’ needs and wants. Ultimately, the hospitality industry should endeavor to train the workforce ensuring it understands, appreciates, and accommodates diversity. This will ensure the workforce is observatory and keen in delivering satisfactory services as diversity enhances communication skills between the staff and customers (Soultana 2012, p. 2249).
Operational, managerial, and legislative issues affecting the hospitality industry are therefore based on the quest of delivering high quality services. They should therefore be addressed and resolved using strategies and approaches aiming to improve the hospitality industry. This should involve hiring and training a workforce in order to teach employees ethics and values of the hospitality industry. Consequently, a competent leader can be hired and tasked with ensuring operations and legislations affecting developments in the hospitality industry are resolved. Ultimately, senior and junior employees ought to rely on customers’ needs and wants in order to identify problems, formulate solutions, and achieve continuous and consistence industrial growth.
Anne, P. C & Andrew, S 2011, Hospitality Quality: New Directions and New Challenges. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), 463-478.
Heidi, G 2014, Management Theories and Practices in the Hospitality Industry. Demand Media, The Chronicles Review.
International Labor Organization (ILO) 2010, Developments and Challenges in the Hospitality and Tourism Sector. Geneva, The Global Dialogue Forum.
Jim, B & Jim, A 2009, Latest Legislation Affecting Hospitality. The Global Hospitality Group.
Lee, G 2014, Negatives and Positives of the Hospitality Industry. Oxford, Harvard University Presses, The Chronicle Review.
Peter, J. H 1995, A Development Strategy for the Hospitality Operations Management Curriculum. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 7(5), 29-32.
Sandra, W 2007, A Conceptual Model for Analyzing Management Development in the UK Hospitality Industry. Napier University.
Sheila, A, M 2012, Supply Elasticity Theory Applied to Tourism and Hospitality. England, Economies of Hotel Management.
Soultana, T. K 2012, Current and Future Trends in Tourism and Hospitality. The Case of Greece. International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, 2(1), 2247-7225.