Sedimentary Rock and Lithification.
Sedimentary rock formation begins with igneous, metamorphic, or other sedimentary rocks. When these rocks are exposed at the earth’s surface they begin the long slow and relentless process such us weathering becoming sedimentary rock (Hajek, 2017). It is these processes that give the sediments their features. on the other hand, lithification is the changing of sediments into rock. There are two processes involved in lithification change. That is compaction and cementation. For a geographer to have clarity on sediments formation, he or she must focus on formation of clastic and non-clastic rocks.
Crystal blue, Persuasion and brecciacompaction and cementation
These are rocks formed from the weathering of the existing rocks. The weathered fragments are transported to a separate location where they accumulate to form new rocks. The sediments from these actions are often carried to other places by the wind, running water, and gravity. As these forces lose energy the sediments settle out of the air or water. As the settling takes place the rock fragments are graded by size (Hajek, 2017). The pressure created on the sediments determines a rock’s smoothness or roughness and size.
Limestone and coal formation
These rocks are formed from mineral particles that are made from solutions. Sediments settle out of a solution by evaporating or by excessive sediments dissolving in the solution (Mackenzie & Garrels, 1971). The weight of the sediments squeezes the particles together. As more and more sediments are deposited the weight on the sediments below increases (Hajek, 2017). Waterborne sediments become so tightly squeezed together that most of the water is pushed out. Cementation happens as dissolved minerals become deposited in the spaces between the sediments.
Hajek, E. A., & Straub, K. M. (2017). Autogenic sedimentation in clastic stratigraphy. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, (0).
Mackenzie, F. T., & Garrels, R. M. (1971). Evolution of sedimentary rocks. Norton.