Hoganson’s Conclusions Regarding Late-19th Century
Hogansons conclusions explain the meaning of imperial impulse as the desire to take and govern the Philippines. He further describes how the United States became involved in the Philippines as part of a war against Spain; a peace treaty with Spain signed ceded the Philippines to the United States, the Philippines. However, did not want to be ceded, on the contrary, they had been fighting for independence from Spain, the united states, however, went ahead and ratified the treaty which ended the war with Spain, which later led to the imperial impulse. The primary sources are grouped into various categories:
- Cartoons from the popular press
- Writing of expansionists regarding Philippine’s
- Selection from the Congress over the Philippine’s
- The statistical tables which are related to the United States trade
In the late 19th Century the cartoons, one of the primary sources which influenced the politics since they formed a political commentary which was intended to reach a mass of audience by paying the readers. Thus, historians concluded and assumed that they shaped the famous views and prejudices, this section contained cartoons related to the issue of the annexation of the Philippines. However, Hoganson had conflicting opinions regarding an interpretation of the various fights in the united stated Imperialism. Hoganson reviews the gender formulation from which Americans political leaders developed their moral bearing and got their political beliefs. Late 19th-century internal politics coincided with the foreign policy while the men acted only on scripted roles of their gender.
Also, the economic achievements and objectives played an essential role in deciding on whether to fight for the control of the Philippines which was located to a potential China market. A few individuals believed that the nation needed well-strategized bases to retain and protect its shares of income earned and thus saw the Philippines as a stepping stone. On the other hand the imperialist were driven by self-interest views in that holding colonies would retain the American men and political systems they had from degenerating, they also commented on American men that they wanted to govern the Philippines because their capacity would increase. Also, the imperialists were not only concerned about the men’s out doing other races and other countries, but they were worried about the men compared to the women and hence the masculinity of gender. The imperialists thought and viewed the Philippines as less adept and unfit for self-government, they viewed them as childish, salvage and feminine (Hoganson, 1978).
The second primary source which is a writing of expansionists regarding the Philippines expounds on the desire of the desire of the Americans to take over the Philippines even without their consent, this primary source supports Hogansons conclusions, it shows that even before the start of the Spanish American war, many American expansionists were vocal in their desire to see American influence expand overseas. After the United States ceded and voted to ratify the treaty with Spain which turned over the Philippines to the United States, they were equally vocal in support of a war against Filipino nationalists upset with the American decision to keep their country (Hoganson, 1978). In conclusion and based on my analysis of the imperialist impulse, the primary sources support Hoganson’s findings regarding the late 19th century conceptions of masculinity.
Hoganson, Kristin. Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1978.