History Paper on The Origins of Global Interdependence 1500-1800

The origins of global interdependence 1500-1800 are generally viewed as historic periods when slave trade resulted in the Agrarian Revolution. It is believed that the Portuguese initiated the slave trade during the 16th century where it explored for workers in West African coastlines for workers. Slave trade was intended to improve harvests by injecting a large number of farm workers. Most European countries would later move slaves from Africa to Europe and America. The greed for economic power made European countries exploit slaves and this was further promoted by the Agrarian Revolution which commenced during the 18th century (MacKinnon 35). More Africans were moved into the US as a result and this sparked an Industrial Revolution during the 19th and 20th century. This discussion, nevertheless, incorporates the SPICE framework (of determining and evaluating historical phenomenon) which explains globalization in its entirety. The origins of global interdependence 1500-1800 describe a transformation period during which traditional communities changed their economic, social and political interactions across the globe.

Social: During the indicated period, most social structures were disrupted by the slave trade in which many men disappeared leaving women as widows and single parents. It is also during this period (1500-1800) that racial discrimination against people of color emerged (Bentley np). Slave trade destroyed traditional social structures and this had a negative impact on involved victims. For instance, raids for slaves would depict incidences of death among local men who refused to be sold into slavery.

Political: Communities which existed between 16th and18th centuries experienced military invasions from powerful kingdoms such as the Ottoman Empire. It is during such invasions that existing political structures were disrupted and destroyed for purposes of territorial expansion. Global interdependence was promoted by political partnerships in which kingdoms would seek military support from small communities (MacKinnon 35). As a result, the council of elders and community officials would see their political roles vanish or get diminished to extinction.

Interactions: Language barrier was a key factor during the 16th to 18th century as different communities had a unique language for communication (Bentley np). As a result, global interdependence was hampered during decision-making processes which involved kingdoms or empires collaborating for a common purpose. (60 Words)

Cultural: Cultural diversity was, similarly, a crucial determinant of success for global interdependence during 1500-1800 historic period. For instance, the ability of slaves to adapt to western culture would be influenced by interactions made in public places such as markets and meetings. It is during this time that individuals from different cultural backgrounds would learn about the cultures of other people.  (60 Words)

Economic: Industrial revolution, during the 18th and 19th century transformed global interdependence among different countries across the globe (Bentley np). For instance, sugar plantations in Europe – which required manpower – turned to the Transatlantic Trade as a means of providing sufficient laborers from conquered territories in Africa and Asia.

The SPICE criteria for evaluating historical phenomena shows that the origin of global interdependence was influenced by numerous factors. Scholars acknowledge that the slave trade played an important role in initiating global interdependence between 1500 and 1800. Politically, most communities were ruled by emperors or kings; such as the Ottoman Empire. With advancements in global interdependence, powerful empires, and kingdoms engaged in civil conflicts as a means of expanding territories to gain a competitive advantage on a regional or global scale. Similarly, the Agrarian and Industrial revolutions contributed to a global transformation in which countries depended on each other for different reasons including military support.

 

Works Cited

Bentley, Jerry H. “Traditions & encounters: a brief global history volume II: from 1500 to the       present.” (2008).

MacKinnon, Aran. “CAPE TOWN: At the Cross-Currents of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean         Worlds (1500–1800) ARAN S. MACKINNON, UNIVERSITY OF WEST          GEORGIA.” Places of Encounter, Volume 2. Routledge, 2018. 31-48.