Globalization can be defined as a process that is mainly based on international strategies whose primary aim is to oversee an expansion of business operations at the global context. It has been facilitated over the years by socioeconomic, environmental, and political developments as well as technological advancements. Globalization has numerous advantages and disadvantages that have seen it appraised and criticized in equal measure. Critics of globalization argue that it has largely benefited developed countries at the expense of developing countries. In a wider perspective, globalization has promoted integration while at the same time promoting disintegration.
Over the years, globalization has promoted the integration of economies and societies, leading to the view that it is an irreversible force (Moussalli). Economic integration attributed to globalization can be seen in the elimination or reduction of trade barriers globally as well as the good coordination of monetary and fiscal policies around the world. An example of economic integration is the formation of the European Union (EU) in 1993 that saw almost 28 European countries come together. Part of the agreement was to have the members states use a common currency, which is the euro. Additionally, by coming together, it has been easier to move goods, technology, services, and capital across borders. There is also the aspect of globalization of production that is all about obtaining goods or services from a given source although from various parts of the world. An example is a production line that previously had around 3000 workers in a given location but has replaced them with 500 workers in six different countries. This is usually done in a bid to reduce the burn in terms of tax and labor. Globalization has promoted societal integration as witnessed in how people freely travel around the world with minimal restriction. Globalization has been facilitated by advancement in technologies hence the ease in socialization among people who are thousands of miles apart.
In as much as globalization promotes integration, it also encourages disintegration. For instance, globalization has promoted the free movement of goods that were once locally produced either in the form of imports or exports. The U.S. imports clothing, footwear, small appliances, textiles, and other goods from China. Previously, most of the imports from China into the U.S. could be produced locally, although this has changed over time. As a result, the relevance and the need for localized production as well as local interaction have disintegrated. Another form of disintegration caused by globalization is people’s disintegration of physical contact with their localities (Witherspoon). The correlation between globalization and technological advancement has made it easier for people to access objects of information without necessarily having to occupy the same time and space. Globalization has resulted in the widespread use of the internet that has resulted in people developing a lack of interest to interact physically. The development points to the disintegration of social interaction that is mainly attributed to various aspect of globalization. Globalization has also resulted in the spread of cultures from one part of the world to another, contributing to cultural disintegration. Critics of globalization in the Arab world believe that the phenomenon has disintegrated the spirit of culture as well as identity. Many western nations have used the aspect of globalization to compel other countries to embrace their cultures and customs. Although this benefits the western world, it harms other countries from an economic and cultural perspective.
Moussalli, Mohammed. “Impact of Globalization.” Global Policy Forum. August 25, 2003. Accessed June 05, 2019. https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27627.html.
Witherspoon, Gerald. “Integration and Disintegration in Globalization.” Online Journal of International Relations 2014. March 09, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2019. https://geraldfwitherspoonsr.wordpress.com/2014/03/09/integration-and-disintegration-in-globalization/.