Issue of Medical and Recreational Use of Marijuana in the US

Issue of Medical and Recreational Use of Marijuana in the US:

Annotated Bibliography


Ammerman, Seth, et al. “The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research,

and legal update.” Pediatrics 135.3 (2015): e769-e785.


This is an approved legal study and technical report that updates the 2004 American of Paediatrics technical report regarding the legalization of Marijuana. The report presents current side effects of marijuana uses ad effects on brain development of adolescents. The specific issues addressed are those concerning medical Marijuana. The report discusses four approaches of legalising Marijuana namely: Legalisation of legal Marijuana, decriminalising recreational use, legalisation of Marijuana for recreational use and finally, criminal prosecution of illegal use. The paper further addresses effects of criminalising youth on Marijuana use. The authors of this report are effective in enlightening the public on how dangerous Marijuana can be when abused, and by turning attention on the youth as the most affected group makes the report more valuable on the current issues regarding the use of Marijuana by youths. The report is useful in my study in emphasising on the most affected group in the society and why there is the need for agent intervention as the youths are critical in the development of our society.


Banys, Peter, and Timmen L. Cermak. “Marijuana Legalization in California:

Rational Implementation of the Adult Use of Marijuana Act (AUMA).” Journal

of psychoactive drugs 48.1 (2016): 63-65.


The main purpose of this article in the journal is to recommend the rational way of implementing AUMA in California. The rational recommendations outlined by the author are divided into categories, and each category is given recommendations.The first category is the recreational use of Marijuana and recommendations given include, need for separating the medical and recreational use of marijuana, tracking the medical marijuana regulations and prohibiting making health claims in health advertising regarding the drug. The second category is community control which is said to be achieved through restricting sell by licenced outlets and delaying licensing consumption cafes to first access the extend of impairment from the use of the drug. The final category is the protection of youth which is said to be achieved by reviewing packaging to ensure they do not appear to be excessively attractive to the youths by incorporating preventive frameworks among others. This source is valuable to the government, decision makers and Bureau of Marijuana control in devising ways that ensure effective legalisation of Marijuana. The article is useful in my recommendation section of my research.

Berman, Henry. “Legalizing Marijuana” The New York Times 24 Oct.2016.


Henry Berman, the writer of this article, is a clinical professor of paediatrics in the Washington school of medicine. He writes in response to Timothy Egan argumentative article about the legalization of Marijuana especially the concluding remarks where Timothy writes, although legalisation of Marijuana is “Not without its problems…it has mostly been no big deal”. He, however, concludes that it has been a compelling issue among the children and adolescent.Henry concurred with Timothy’ s statement that after the legalization of Marijuana, there were reports that more children affected by its use were increasingly reporting at emergency centres. He also writes how Marijuana has become ‘edibles’ and increased use in schools. This article is so touching that anyone will want to participate to save children from such a disturbing problem. This article helps me convince my readers why Marijuana legalisations have borne problems so compelling and need an urgent solution. It helps me catch the attention of my readers to take my recommendations into considerations.


Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. Considering marijuana legalisation: insights for Vermont

and other jurisdictions. Rand Corporation, 2015.


The authors of this book set the stage for the current debate on Marijuana Policy in the US on production, sell, distribution and even possession of Marijuana. They review scientific literature explaining the effects of consumption of Marijuana currently. They also focus on how Marijuana drives revenues through taxes and fee. It analyses benefits of those revenues how they can be made useful and invested in controlling regulations and devising strategies to ensure Marijuana is put is a good use. They incorporated all their findings to recommend on those strategies by outlining the most suitable ones. The book is a comprehensive study on all the issues surrounding Legalization of Marijuana currently and therefore an up to date recommendable source. The book addresses the most problematic issues today and helps me in developing my thesis on poor regulation of Marijuana policy on medical and recreational use. It also helps me in my concluding thoughts on how further legalisation on larger society can be beneficial regarding revenues and how important it is to ensure sell and distribution of Marijuana is not motivated by profits but by the essential medical and recreational use.


Compton, Michael T., ed. Marijuana and Mental Health. American Psychiatric Pub, 2016.


This book presents the real impacts of Marijuana on the mental health with a goal of providing known information and what psychiatrists, public health and other mental health professional need to know. It explores the legalisation policies, the health cases prior and after legalisation, strategies that can be used to prevent misuse, the extent of control by legalisation policies and process of the US food and administration among others. According to this book, Marijuana affects mental health in diverse ways. Some of the effects mentioned is substance use disorders which relate to Marijuana like mood disorders and anxiety among other behavioural disorders. The authors also include epidemiology of the drug and the emergence rates. They focus on treatment and prevention by giving leads to clinical officers that they should treat each effect accordingly. The authors advice policy makers and the government to implement policies that track the use of marijuana like convicting illegal distributors and ensuring licensed outlets are only ones that operate so that more people can register and disclose the extent of Marijuana use which will guide further policy implementations. The author of this book successfully manages to compile the current research on mental impacts of Marijuana which provide clinicians and other readers with through study of the topic on which information is biased and hard to find. The book advances the truth about the connection of Marijuana and metal health. The book is useful in my study in providing valid statistics and health impacts of Marijuana currently. It also enables me to find other relevant information on rates of illegal distribution and sell of marijuana and their comparative influence on the users.


Hall, Wayne, and Michael Lynskey. “Why it is probably too soon to assess the public

health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA.”

The Lancet Psychiatry 3.9 (2016): 900-906.


The main purpose of this paper is to address the initiative the citizens of US states of Alaska, Colorado, Oregon and Washington have taken to get Marijuana legalised for recreational use. The authors write that the full effect of Marijuana has not been realised like other drugs like alcohol and tobacco, main reasons being restrictions to licensed outlets and conflicts between the federal and state government that might limit commercialization of marijuana. The paper aims at making the use of Marijuana more socially acceptable. This paper is important to proponents of Marijuana legalisation and just confirms to responsible legal systems that they should go ahead legalise Marijuana but only with precautions. This paper helps me get the minds of my readers thinking in my study in my concluding  paragraph where I ask riders what possible consequence are in store for us with if the recreational pot is legalised in California.


Richmond, Melissa K., et al. “Frequency and risk of marijuana use among substance-

using health care patients in Colorado with and without access to state

legalised medical marijuana.” Journal of psychoactive drugs 47.1 (2015): 1-9.


This study compares the extend of use of Marijuana and other substance by patience legally given access to medical Marijuana and those who do not have legal access. The authors of this study collected data from 2030 patients who tested positive for marijuana use when seeking healthcare. From the response give during the interviews, only 17.4% had legal access to Marijuana.Moreso, patients with legal access, had lower use of the drug. The finding of this study are important in informing healthcare providers of the specific risk of using the drug, the effects of long-term use and limited risks of users of Marijuana with legal access. In my research, the findings of the study helped me convince readers about the extended use of Marijuana by the public which might be explained by illegal sell and distribution of Marijuana which has been made possible through uncontrolled legal laws.


Saaty, Thomas L. “A Marijuana Legalization Model Using Benefits, Opportunities, Costs

and Risks (BOCR) Analysis.” International Journal of Strategic Decision

Sciences (IJSDS) 6.2 (2015): 1-11.


Saaty, Thomas in this journal analyses the benefits, opportunities, costs and Risks of legalising marijuana that is now before Congress for action.Saaty explores the view of Marijuana in the Society especially regarding its abuse and addiction and consequential problems including violence. From the study and outcome of benefit –risk analysis, the author concludes that Marijuana should be legalised in more states in America. The author considered that though Marijuana is harmful to one’s health from regular and long-term use, there are prohibitions that understand the cost and benefits of the drug. This article is valuable in justifying why the US continues to consider legalisation of Marijuana and its focus on the importance of legalising Marijuana implies good use be considered by the Americans. This paper is useful in my study in recommending how the government can strategize its decisions in their next laws legalising Marijuana. In my research, the government can reference on how to avoid a decision that only motivates profit making but focusing on the essential use of Marijuana.


Scheuer, Luke M. “The Worst of Both Worlds: The Wild West of the’Legal’

Marijuana Industry.” North Illinois University Law Review 35 (2015): 15-18.


The purpose of this paper is exploring the scope of professionalism in the Marijuana Industry. It gives a suggestion based on its research about how the harms presented by the industry to the public can be mitigated by incorporating more professionals to control the operations of the Industry. According to the paper, legalisation of marijuana in America has created a booming industry that been violating the Controlled Substance Abuse Act. The author of this article critics the government for not steeping in to control the industry and suggests for intervention to ensure the industry develops responsible operation. This paper is important in enlightening the responsible institution on the risks they are presenting to the marijuana industry and how capable it is to prevent them. This source is very useful in my topic as it provides me with information on harms within the industry and preventive measures. It is helpful in the development of the content of my paper on those sections.


Wilkinson, Samuel T., et al. “Marijuana legalisation: impact on physicians and

public health.” Annual review of medicine 67 (2016): 453-466.


The main purpose of this annual review is to address the controversial impacts of Marijuana, especially for the public health. The authors argue that there has not been clear records on the extend of health impacts of Marijuana use since the Legalization policies started being implemented. The authors state that the legalisation of Marijuana has had negative impacts on encouraging illegal distribution and sale which existed prior legalisation. The authors also write on how medical issues have become increasingly relevant and give examples like acute marijuana and unintentional injection of Marijuana by children. This annual review is relevant to future researchers as it identifies a gap within the Marijuana industry that the impacts of Marijuana are not understood and need to be researched. This review is useful in my study in addressing the impacts of Marijuana especially on the health of the public.