Linguistics Paper on Lexical Retrieval in a Healthy Aging

Lexical Retrieval in a Healthy Aging

Memory lapse are considerably one of the greatest and common complaints reported by older individuals. Conversely, numerous scientific studies have significantly indicated that aging does not integrate a global decay in retention capabilities but instead provides a distinct transformation in a specific segments of memory (Paolieri, Marful, Morales & Bajo, 2018). However, numerous language problems exhibited by the elderly are mostly based on the complication experienced during the retrieval process and not due to loss in semantic memory. For instance, during normal communications, older persons display more word finding challenges as indicated by a reduction in the verbal eloquence and an increase in the amount of errors, repetitions, and pauses. Notably, one of the alterations that manifest during the period of aging is associated with the difficulty in naming. The recovery hitches are predominantly visible when observing at the rate of the tip-of-the-tongue state (Shafto, James, Abrams & Tyler, 2017). As such, am doing this research to investigate the lexical retrieval in a healthy aging which is an important aspect since the problems observed offers a devaluation of an individual’s own language proficiency.

Research Questions

My study integrates various questions that helps in achieving the research objective.

These includes:

  1. What are the names of the images portrait on this paper in sixty seconds?
  2. Can you name some of the fruits you know within thirty seconds?

Research Hypotheses

The research is based on null hypotheses which extrapolate that lexical retrieval among the elderly is minimal compared to the younger individuals.

Research Methods and Designs

My study is an explorative type of research since it involves investigation of the lexical retrieval among the elderly. Importantly, the examination integrates two distinct type of groups; older adults aged between 50-70 years and younger persons aged between 20-30 years old. The aging people comprises of four females and three males, while the youthful personnel includes two females and three males. The participants are required to speak as many fruit names as they can within a period of thirty seconds, as well as to name the images that are shown to them within one minutes. At the start of the study, each contributor is to be familiarized with a set of stimuli that is to be applied in the investigation. Importantly, I am going to measure rate of reply expectancies at the beginning of the stimuli demonstration to the onset of the response. Names are deemed correct if they correspond to the directed word.


My exploration finds that the level of lexical retrieval among the adults is low compared to the youthful individuals. However, the recovery rate between male and female adults is dependent on the level of education, and a similar result is exhibited in the younger group. Further, the teenagers are quick and exact in naming and retrieving words than the elderly group.


Based on the findings, older individuals are more susceptible to lexical retrieval due to the semantic intervention enhanced by a challenge in suppressing the activation of semantically associated distractors (Paolieri, Marful, Morales & Bajo, 2018). Additionally, elderly personnel makes errors due to mistakes in accessing phonological materials about the target names compared to the young individuals.


Aging does not integrate a global decay in memory capabilities but instead provides a distinct transformation in specific segments of memory. As such, the aging populace has minimal lexical retrieval capabilities due to semantic interferences enhanced by a loss in the working memory. Notably, one of the alterations that manifest during the period of aging is associated with the difficulty in naming.



Paolieri, D., Marful, A., Morales, L., & Bajo, M. T. (2018). The modulating effect of education on semantic interference during healthy aging. PloS one, 13(1), e0191656. Retrieved from:

Shafto, M. A., James, L. E., Abrams, L., & Tyler, L. K. (2017). Age-related increases in verbal knowledge are not associated with word finding problems in the Cam-CAN cohort: What you know won’t hurt you. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 72(1), 100-106. Retrieved from: