Medical Sciences Paper on Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

The Congestive Heart Failure is one of the most common clinical complications that result from vascular congestion as well as reduced cardiac output.  Additionally, the illness can also be explained as a complex medical syndrome that can result from both structural and functional cardiac complications that may result in the impairment of the ventricles (Masoomi et al., 2017). However, since there are no established mechanisms for diagnosing the condition, most medical specialists rely on physical examination to carry out the tests.

Some of the most noticeable clinical manifestations of the disease include weight gain, shortness of breath and edema. Notably, most of the diagnosed patients die within five years from the date of the diagnosis implying that the complication can be categorized as one of the choric illnesses affecting human being in the modern world (Yancy et al., 2016).  The diagnosis of the complication is progressive and requires constant management. The progression of the complication occurs in four different stages with each step having a different medical intervention.

Understanding the Dynamics

The inability to establish proper prevention and treatment methods of CHF have over the years increased public health concerns. Understandably, there are more than 20 million individuals around the globe suffering from the condition with a prevalence rate of 2% in the developed countries. On average, more than 5.3 million have been diagnosed with the condition over the last five years in the United States (Yancy et al., 2016). An additional 660,000 new cases are recorded in the country every year translating to an incidence of 1% among people of 65 years and above. According to the center for disease control (CDC) and the census bureau in the United States, African American individuals between 45 and 65 years are more likely to get infected with complication compared to their Caucasian counterparts (Masoomi et al., 2017).  The high risk in this population can be linked to their longer survival rate and weak immune system. Moreover, the mortality rate for this minority population is 2.5 times higher compared to the other. However, the Hispanic population has a higher incidence rate than the non-Hispanic individuals with most of them contracting the complication at younger ages thus having higher hospital admissions

Geographic Prevalence

Considering the disparities in the rate of Congestive heart failure among human beings, the prevalence rate can also be categorized according to the geographical distribution of the patients. In the United States, for example, the highest rate of hospitalization on CHF related cases was recorded in the southeastern part of the country (Masoomi et al., 2017). By definition, these states were termed as Tennessee catchment areas with states such as Alaska recording the highest mortality rate over the last five years. Other areas most affected by the illness include areas around lower Mississippi river valley and Ohio River valley. Understandably, these regions have recorded an average of 287, 000 deaths per year over the last decade (Yancy et al., 2016).

CHF Settings

Considering the different stages of the disease, nurses are likely to encounter it in different settings. Mostly, caregivers can encounter the disease in patients suffering from conditions such as severe blood vessel problem, weakened the heart muscle and blocked heart vessels. Moreover, other settings that may increase the prevalence of the disease include, lack of exercise, high salt intake and unhealthy life habits such as excessive alcohol


Congestive heart failure can be categorized as one of the chronic diseases that have raised global concern over the last decade.  Although there is no established treatment method, it is important for caregivers and international entities such as CDC and the world health organization to identify prevention mechanisms.



Yancy, C. W., Jessup, M., Bozkurt, B., Butler, J., Casey, D. E., Colvin, M. M., & Hollenberg, S. M. (2016). 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update on new pharmacological therapy for heart failure: an update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Journal of Cardiac Failure22(9).

Masoomi, R., Shah, Z., Parashara, D., Dawn, B., & Gupta, K. (2017). Timely Use Of Right Heart Catheterization Is Associated With Reduced In-Hospital Mortality In Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: Insight From The United States National Inpatient Sample Database. Journal of the American College of Cardiology69(11 Supplement), 761.