Matter and Change
Part 1: Summary
The focus of the ‘Matter and Change’ video is on testing the characteristics and properties of gaseous, liquid and solid elements that include sugar, calcium hydroxide, hydrogen, mercury, boric acid, starch and salt.
Table salt dissolves when put in water. Nevertheless, there is no reaction between iodine solution and a liquid that has salt. After heating a solution of salt, water evaporates quickly leaving white crystals on the container’s surface after the complete disappearance of the liquid. After putting salt solution beneath ice water, there is no change (solidify). Instead, it remains in its status. At 180o Celsius, salt melts. As such, when salt is heated at a high temperature it immediately fuses and then it becomes a liquid. However, on exposure to a low temperature this liquid becomes salt again.
Sugar dissolves when put in water. Nevertheless, there is no reaction between sugar solution and iodine solution. After heating sugar solution to a high temperature, the solution becomes brownish after the evaporation of the liquid. Starch dissolves partly in water and there is a reaction between its solution and iodine solution which result in the formation of a solution that is purple in color.
When calcium hydroxide is put in water, it does not dissolve. There is also no reaction between it and iodine solution. After filtering a solution of calcium hydroxide, a clear liquid is produced and this turns cloudy white on blowing mouth gas into it. On combining calcium hydroxide with oxygen, it catches fire burning rigorously.
Boric acid dissolves partly in water. Nevertheless, there is no reaction between iodine solution and its solution. On heating it to a high temperature, the solution of boric acid produces crystals that have a white color after the evaporation of water. Additionally, on putting the solution of boric acid under ice, white crystals are produced. On heating the solution, the acid dissolves readily. When cooled, the solution of boric acid forms white crystals. Thus, boric acid becomes a liquid on heating it to a high temperature and it condenses on exposing it to a low temperature.
Bromine is an extremely poisonous substance. It exists as a liquid at the room temperature. Nevertheless, it becomes a solid or gas when the temperature changes. On placing Bromine under ice, it turns from liquid state to solid state. On heating it to a high temperature, it becomes a liquid and further heating turns it to a vapor (the gaseous bromine). On exposing bromine to a low temperature, it turns from gas to liquid and on placing it under ice it becomes solid bromine.
At room temperature, the state of mercury is liquid. However, it becomes a vapor once heated. Solid mercury becomes liquid after heating it and further heating turns it to a vapor. There are different densities of gases, liquids and solids. The density of solids is higher than the density of liquids. Nevertheless, on adding salt solution or salt, the density of liquids becomes higher than that of solids. There are also different densities of atmospheric gases. For example, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen have less density than air. However, water and oxygen have higher density than air.
Part II: Impact
Before I watched and listened to Matter and Change, imagining the numerous properties as well as characteristics of these elements was difficult. For example, my knowledge was that after dissolving sugar and salt in water, one could not recover them. Additionally, I thought that mercury existed in form of liquid wile bromine was available in gaseous state only. Additionally, my thought was that liquids’ density would always be exceeded by solids’ density regardless of the circumstances. In addition, my thought was that there is no way atmospheric gases could have a higher density than air because they are part of the atmospheric air. As such, during the introduction of this topic my expectation was that I would learn more about these concepts as well as understand their existence. Nevertheless, things were different because I learnt more than I expected.
First, I realized that it is possible to recover sugar or salt after dissolving them in water. On heating a sugar or salt solution to a high temperature, water evaporates leaving brown or white crystals which are sugar and salt consecutively. Salt can also be recovered after exposing the solution to a low temperature because the solution forms salt crystals upon condensation.
Second, I realized that on heating liquid gases, they become vapor (gaseous state) and the vapor becomes a liquid gas when condensed. Additionally, on subjecting gases to a low temperature, they become solid after condensing. For instance, bromine is used in this topic as a gas which can exist in gaseous, liquid and solid state on the basis of the prevailing temperature conditions. I also learnt that there are solids that dissolve fully in water while some do not. Sugar and salt for instance dissolve fully in water but calcium hydroxide cannot dissolve in water. Furthermore, I realized that gases dissolve partly in water. For instance, when oxygen and bromine are put in water, some percentage dissolves.
The final thing that I realized is that it is possible to decrease or increase liquid density. Usually, the density of solids is higher than that of liquids. Nevertheless, it is possible to increase liquids’ density so that it becomes higher than liquids’ density. Nevertheless, when salt solution or solid is added to liquids, their density can surpass that of solids.
Part III: Implementation
In aviation, this topic of matter and change is applied extensively. Understanding the application of chemistry in aviation may seem difficult but this concept is presence in aviation. For instance, this concept is applied in manufacturing materials that are used in making aircrafts. The environment where aircrafts travel comprises of liquid vapor and gases. These can cause corrosion after reacting with the metals that make the aircrafts. As such, aluminum and steel alloys are used in the manufacture of aircrafts to prevent corrosion. Other substances in their gaseous vapor form affect these metals. For instance, introduction of gaseous vapors on substances followed by their condensation forms liquid which can cause corrosion. Thus, these enable the aircrafts to be strong without depreciation. This topic is applied in the selection of materials’ density in the manufacture of aircrafts. The density of aircrafts should be low that that of air to enhance their suspension in the air.
When making the fuel that is used in the aviation industry, this topic is also applied. The fuel that is used in aviation is highly volatile. When exposed to very low temperatures, this fuel can condense forming ice and it can burn explosively when exposed to a high temperature. As such, there are additives that are included when manufacturing this fuel in order to reduce the fuel icing risk when exposed to a low temperature and explosion when exposed to a high temperature.
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