Risk Factors for Ebola Virus
The growth in the level of global development has over the years led to the emergence of different health concerns that have increased the number of challenges facing the human population. For example, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has for many decades resulted in the death of many people particularly in the western and central regions of Africa. For instance, states such as Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have been adversely affected in various sectors thus reducing their economic and social development. However, the intensity of the infections differs in these countries with areas such as Kenema and Kailahun being the worst affected by the disease (Dietz, Jambai, Paweska, Yoti, & Ksaizek, 2015). Notably, EVD was first discovered in the democratic republic of Congo (DRC) in 1976 and has since spread to some of the adjacent countries. Essentially, it can be characterized by the sudden outbreak of fever that is accompanied by other symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
However, with the continued mutation of the virus, other patients have recently shown signs of hemorrhage. Equally, in severe cases, the affected person develops shock which in turn leads to organ failure and eventually death. The research by Patricia, Jabai, Yoti and Ksiazek a detailed assessment of the risk factors of Ebola and some of the preventive measures adopted by governments and international entities such as the world health organization (WHO). Additionally, the researchers use some of the fundamental research questions to evaluate the various aspects of the epidemic including some of the critical interventions set, the most affected populations, and the preventive methods adopted. Some of the international companies involved in combating the illness include WHO, the center for disease control (CDC) and the government of Sierra Leone (Delamou et al., 2017)
Initial Objectives and Results
Considering the depth of the research presented in the study, the authors intended to evaluate not only the factors promoting the high prevalence rate of the disease but also examining some of the interventions implemented by both the governments and international organizations in reducing the effects of the rare epidemic. Understandably, the researchers note that the leadership of Sierra Leone has developed unique methods to help in the identification of different individuals affected by the illness.
Essentially, for this method to be effective, the government had to incorporate other members of the public including family and medical practitioners to help in fighting the disease. This would enable them to identify the most affected areas and groups. Most of the alerts were organized in defined areas such as districts that enable easy and extensive screening. Moreover, the researchers try to establish some of the risk factors that promote the spread of the disease specifically to the western and central parts of Africa. To obtain reliable findings from the processes adopted by these organization, the researcher collected and analyzed some of the primary and secondary data obtained. Moreover, they used the VHF surveillance system that helps in the evaluation of the available information, delayed data and identification of report numbers (Dietz, Jambai, Paweska, Yoti, & Ksaizek, 2015). From these reports, various inferences were made and findings established. Additionally, the study used some of the health professionals such as physicians, nurses and Red Cross volunteers to complete some of the forms and data documents. Moreover, the obtained information was grouped into distinct sections including age sex, date of symptom onset, and occupation which assisted in concluding the effect of the disease on different groups.
Evaluation of the Research Methods
The article epidemiology and risk factors for Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone by Dietz, Jambai, Psweska, you and Ksiazek provide an elaborated study of some of the factors that promote the spread of the illness among the population in the region. The authors provide a brief literature review that explains some of the research done by other individuals as well as groups. Some of the areas concentrated on include the symptoms of Ebola and the examination process on the affected persons. Additionally, it lays down some of the steps adopted by the governments if the affected countries to ensure that proper mechanisms are implemented to reduce the prevalence levels of this health complication.
Understandably, the outbreak of Ebola has affected some of the West African countries x since 2013 and is primarily caused by the EBOV species of the Ebola virus. Over the years the number of infected persons has increased drastically in various states. By 2014, a total of 20200 deaths has been reported across the region with Sierra Leone recording the highest number of 2758 casualties (Delamou et al., 2017). Other countries that suffered from the epidemic include Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, guinea, and Liberia. As such Ebola is one of the recent global health concerns that has drawn the attention of different health groups who try to find the best method of not only hampers the spread but also finding the most effective treatment method.
The study uses nonexperimental research method as it relies on the already identified cases of Ebola. Understandably, this method lack any procedure that can lead to the manipulation of the independent variable, orders of the conditions to be used or random selection of the subjects to be used in identifying the essential components of the phenomenon under investigation. Instead, the researcher relies on the observation, interpretation, and interactions of some of the medical personnel such as physicians and nurses to conclude the research. Undoubtedly, this enables the attainment of high level of validity and reliability of the information. Furthermore, the researchers used secondary sources such as the VHF surveillance system that would enable understanding of the behaviors and effects of the virus to the affected individuals.
The population used for the study composed of people infected with the virus as well as other individuals that showed symptoms linked to the disease. However, the researchers did not explain the selection criteria for these individuals but instead provided the regions used for the evaluation. To enable drawing of reliable conclusion, the study needed input from other health professionals who helped in different cases assessment and verification of videos and documents used for the study. Considering the complexity of the disease, people from different age groups were examined with distinct methods of evaluation being employed to determine the risk factors (Dietz, Jambai, Paweska, Yoti, & Ksaizek, 2015). Therefore, the method used in selecting the population was appropriate since the disease had differentiated effects on the subjects thus eliminating any form of biases of the information obtained.
The research displays high level of uniqueness in evaluating some of the risk factors and is therefore special in the fighting of the Ebola virus disease. Essentially, the study does not only help in the identification of some of the risk factors but also provide some of the measures implemented by both the federal governments as well as the international organizations to prevent the spread of the epidemic. Moreover, the constant evaluation of the affected persons provides a platform for ensuring that any changes or mutation of the virus is assessed and effective treatment method employed. Consequently, understanding the various aspects of the EVD is an essential aspect of ensuring that the world stays free of preventable chronic health complications. Considering the annual number of deaths caused by Ebola in these regions, its outbreak or spread to the other continents may lead to global catastrophe thus limiting world development.
The primary aim of the research is to investigate the risk factors promoting the spread of Ebola in some of the West African countries. As such, the authors discuss some of the critical aspects of the study by providing detailed and transparent examination of different vital concerns. Notably, it elaborates several areas such as the research methods used, cumulative cases, findings and discussion and conclusion. This creates a well-organized work that enables natural understanding of what the study is talking about. Considerably, in presenting the effects of EVD in the western and central parts of Africa and the risk factors, the authors are successful in showing some of the diverse impacts of the disease to human beings. Therefore to reduce the impact brought about by Ebola, it is essential for other similar researches to be carried out on the same subject to enable increased understanding of the virus.
The article by Dietz, Jambai, Paweska, Yoti and Ksaizek, provides an informed piece that can be used in combating some of the emerging global health concerns. It gives the dynamics facing the fighting of Ebola and the risk factors that enable high prevalence of the illness. As such, it is essential for international organizations to not only empower the governments of the affected countries but also to lead in the finding of long-term solutions to this phenomenon.
Delamou, A., Delvaux, T., El Ayadi, A. M., Beavogui, A. H., Okumura, J., Van Damme, W., & De Brouwere, V. (2017). Public health impact of the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: seizing opportunities for the future. BMJ global health, 2(2), e000202.
Dietz, P. M., Jambai, A., Paweska, J. T., Yoti, Z., & Ksaizek, T. G. (2015). Epidemiology and risk factors for Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone—23 May 2014 to 31 January 2015. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(11), 1648-1654.