For PISA, reading performance measures a learner’s capacity to understand, use and reflect on a text written with the aim of achieving certain goals, developing knowledge and after that be able to engage in the activities in the society. PISA reading performance uses learners aged 15 years. Using the United States, Mexico, Japan, and Iceland as a reference to reading performance, Japan has a higher score when compared to the other three states. Japan has a ranking of 516 with girls having a higher reading performance than boys. However, Japan has the highest gender gap of 31 points.
On average, the United States has better performance than most states. American learners have a score of 497, with girls having a better reading performance than boys. Additionally, the 4th-grade reading score in 2017 had improved significantly; a positive deviation of 222 as compared to the year 1992.
In Iceland, the average performance of learners aged 15 years old is 482 points; the score is slightly lower when compared to an average of 493 points in OECD states. In Iceland, the girls have a significant reading performance having 27 points higher than their counterparts; the margin is more significant when compared to the U.S.A.
In Mexico, the performance in reading score is 423, this is significantly low as the OECD nations have an average of 493 points. However, in Mexico, there is a smaller gender gap compared to Iceland, U.S.A, and Japan. Girls aged 15 years in Mexico have a better reading performance than boys; there is a statistical difference of 16 points between the girls’ capacity for reading and that of boys. The top-performing learners in Mexico have a lower performance in proficiency level 5 or 6.