Sample Annotated Bibliographies Paper on Healthcare Issues

Healthcare Issues

Heit, J. A., Mohr, D. N., Silverstein, M. D., Petterson, T. M., O’fallon, W. M., & Melton, L. J. (2000). Predictors of recurrence after deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: A population-based cohort study. Archives of internal medicine, 160(6), 761-768.

Heit and his colleagues carried out a research aimed at estimating the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and determining the factors contributing to the recurrence. Since the documented cases of VTE vary extensively, Heit and his team conducted a population-based retroactive cohort research to assess survival. The study entailed data retrieval of Olmsted County, Minnesota, patients. The medical records of the patients were observed for 25 years for the first VET recurrence. For the reason that Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) usually reappear in similar tendencies as indicated by the clinical symptoms, their study did not entail the complete range of estimation accuracy based on manifestation. VTE is known to recur frequently, a trend that has been observed to continue for about 10 years after the first incident or even longer periods at times. The researchers concluded that VTE recurrence tended to occur in the initial 6 to 12 months and continued to recur 10 years after the initial diagnosis. The researchers, therefore, proposed that further research should be carried out to address acquired and familial thrombophilia as a sign for reappearance of VTE. They believe that such studies will be significant in analyzing the risks of recurrence.

This study is useful in understanding the factors of VTE recurrence and the vulnerable population. VTE is a serious illness with severe exacerbations. For some individuals, long term anticoagulation psychotherapy after the first episode of VTE may present substantial benefits. Since the risk of the recurrence is mainly high during the first six to twelve months after an occurrence, it can be concluded that a standard intensity of the psychotherapy may offer optimal advantage during this period regardless of the associated increase in bleeding.

Lee, J. S, Moon, T, Kim, T. H, Kim, S. Y, Choi, J. Y, Lee, K. B, & Hwang, H. K (2016 ) Deep vein thrombosis in patients with pulmonary embolism: Prevalence, clinical significance, and outcome. Vascular Specialist International, 32 (4), 166.

In recent times, cases of clinical manifestation of the DVT and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) as diseases of similar entities have increased. Nonetheless, very few studies have addressed the common occurrence of the two illnesses. Lee and his colleagues conducted research with three key objectives. The first objective was to determine the incidence and side effects of DVT in patients suffering from PE. The second was to determine additional risk elements for PE-related negative effects. The third was to institute the clinical significance of screening for associated DVT. In their study, the researchers involved 177 patients suffering from PE and 141 others diagnosed with DVT.  While recording their findings, the researchers noted down the frequency and effects of DVT in individuals with PE. Thus, it supported screening for concomitant DVT for every patient with confirmed PE. However, the research failed to look into the clinical implication of concomitant DVT for PE-associated side effects as well as all-cause mortality. Tachycardia and hypoxemia were outlined as major predictors for PE associated side effects as well as active malice and hypotension as key risk elements of all-cause mortality. Therefore a conclusion was made that the patients that had symptoms of PE also had signs of DVT.

This study outlines the general prevalence of the combination of DVT and PE and associated risk factors. For a long time, PE has been largely underdiagnosed as a result of nonspecific symptoms. The study outlines the significance of screening test for concomitant DVT for every patient suffering from PE. DVT should not simply be diagnosed or excepted based on clinical findings. Test should be carried out every time the diagnosis of DVT is being considered. Clinical signs of PE as the initial manifestation occur in many patients with established DVT.

Silverstein, M. D, Heit, J. A, Mohr, D. N, Petterson, T. M, O’fallon, W. M, & Melton, L. J (1998) Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: A 25-year population-based study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158 (6), 585-593.

Silverstein et al. (1998) conducted a research to estimate the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Every year, there are numerous cases of venous thromboembolism. However, the incidences of the disease have not been described well. There is also no documentation of long-term trends in the occurrences of the disease. Among the aged, venous thrombosis has been marked as a key health concern nationally. This research shows a rise in cases of venous thromboembolism by a greater percentage on a yearly basis. The survey carried out by the authors was population-based. 2218 of the patients were from Olmsted County, Minnesota. The general observation based on these findings indicated that the justification of the trends and increase in cases that involved VDP could not be traced on migration into Olmsted County for healthcare. Thus, the study puts forward that further research should look into the purpose of age and gender in the vascular biologic elements of venous thrombosis. While the incidence of the pulmonary embolism has gone down over time, the incidence of the deep vein thrombosis has not changed in males. On the other hand; it has been increasing in the older women.

The findings of this study emphasize the significance of more precise identification of patients who are vulnerable to venous thromboembolism and effective and danger-free prophylaxis. The disease is a major national health issue particularly among the aged. The incidence of the malady increases as an individual gets older. The results of the study have significant implications for the future. As the population of the United States ages, the estimated number of Venus thromboembolism occurrence is likely to grow. A great proportion of these incidences are likely to manifest as PE with its associated poor survival rates.