Sample Biology Paper on Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis(CF) is a hereditary disorder that mostly affects the respiratory system, the digestive system and other body organs. It affects the mucus-producing and sweat cells as well as the digestive juices. The latter are usually slippery; thus upon attack by CF, they become sticky plugging up the walls of passages in the body. The disorder has an estimated 25% prevalence in children born of two heterozygote parents and a rate of 1 in 20 white people.

CF symptoms vary with the severity of the disorder with most of the signs alluding to respiratory and digestive systems. Among the symptoms are persistent coughing with thick mucus, breathlessness, recurring lung infections and stuffy nose in the respiratory system. Redundant weigh gain, stinking greasy stool, and meconium ileus in newborns affect the digestive systems.

Diagnosis for newborns is conducted at birth where a blood sample is taken for screening of immunoreactive trypsinogen(IRT) levels. Genetic tests are made to relate to the IRT test to confirm the diagnosis. To ensure concrete results, sweat tests are taken on fortnight old infants to check the salt levels. For adults, doctors recommend genetic, and sweat tests in visible case symptoms of CF are experienced.

Treatment of the disorder is conducted under close monitoring mostly by a multispecialty team of doctors. Recommended drugs used for treatment are distributed in age terms as Trifakta (elexafactor, ivafactor and tezacaftor) for 12-year old and above, Symdeko (tezacaftor and ivafactor) for 6-years and more past and Kalydeco (ivafactor) for 6-months and older (Mall and Elborn).

Science has been in the forefront to treat CF following their recent discovery of providing simulated proteins to patients’ lung cells to replace the damaged cells. The technique is designed to replace the corroded protein cells in the lungs to restore water and air transport regularly in the cells lessening CF indicators. Out of the 22 diverse anionophores tested, four of the compounds containing F508 deletion component together with lumafactor and ivafactor successfully improved the transport in and out of the lungs (Govan). As a result, the compounds have been recommended as the most-effective currently as more experiments are being conducted to come up with a sole cure for the disorder.



Works Cited

Govan, J.R.W. “Insights into cystic fibrosis microbiology from the European tobramycin trial in cystic fibrosis.” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol. 1, 2012, pp. 203-208.

Mall, Marcus A., and J. S. Elborn. Cystic Fibrosis: ERS Monograph. European Respiratory Soc., 2014.