Sample Literature Review Paper on Contributing Factors and Barriers To Public Administration Diversity: A New Yolk State Education

Background of the Study.
Cities are generally known to inhabit diverse groups from different walks of life, making
it critical to formulate and implement rules and regulations that promotes inclusivity. New York
City became the primary capital city of America in the wake of the late 1780s, after confirming
the USA constitution. Following two years, the Dutch set up the state on Manhattan Island while
the English accepted accountability for the space in 1864, renaming it New York. Someplace in
the scope of 1892 and 1954, numerous outsiders displayed in New York Harbor and went via
Ellis Island on their excursion to becoming American occupants (King et al., 2015). It is assessed
that about 40 percent of Americans follow no one model to that area's port. New York City is the
most phenomenal city in the state.
Many areas also milestones in N.Y. The city is a tremendous achievement, counting three
of the world's ten most visited places for getting away in 2013. 66.6 million travellers visited
New York in 2019. Many city places are of interest, tall structures and stops are known all
through the planet, like the city's fast speed, generating the term New York minute ( King et al.,
2015). The Empire State Building has transformed into the overall reference standard to portray
the height and length of various plans. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most
expensive on earth. Giving tireless all day, everyday help and adding to the designation
The city has 120 schools and universities north, counting New York University,
Columbia University, Rockefeller University, and the City University of New York structure,
the most noticeable metropolitan state-supported educational system in the United States
(Grissom et al., 2015). The New York State Education Department is the New York express

3
government's branch liable for controlling all organization-sponsored schools in New York and
all state-oversaw testing, as the creation and relationship of state tests and Regents Examinations.
It was set up in 1904. Furthermore, the State Education Department coordinates high-level
training, social foundations like presentation corridors and libraries, proficient recuperation, and
approving different reasons for living. Its rules are consolidated in title 8 of the N.Y. rules and
regulations. The virtual workspaces of the work environment are located n the New York State
Department of Education Building.
Statement of the Problem
An organization faces barriers to diversity due to several factors, including cultural setup
and structural orientation. The growing body of diversity-related organizational theory and
incorporating diversity in management education programs suggest that achieving diversity is a
top concern for organizations and companies throughout sectors (Perry & Christensen, 2015).
Diversity is frequently seen as an efficient means of dealing with and adapting to changing
external situations. Indeed, the corporate and public sector has embraced diversity education; a
genuine industry has come up in the last decade or two teeming with consultants' workshops,
trainers, and seminars.
Albeit the touchy idea of race relations and regulatory latency may impede progress,
firms may implement diversity efforts using tried-and-true approaches. In some cases, diversity
management efforts may be used to enhance diversity in a firm by intentionally recruiting people
from underrepresented groups and reducing barriers to such recruitment ( Emerson et al., 2012).
In other circumstances, however, it requires efficient administration of an already diverse
organizational workforce to maximize the potential of such individuals.

4
In line with the case study, diversity management is highlighted to increase the
representation of ignored groups. Such a methodology should contain authoritative change parts:
initiative responsibility, vision and mission improvement, representative cooperation, vital
preparation, preparing, and obligation regarding A.A. and various destinations. Other than asset
allotment, initiative responsibility is fundamental to any variety project. Administrators should
give an excellent illustration of earnestness. Traditional culture has been featured as the main
hindrance to managerial change and variety drives (Sussner et al., 2011)
Research Objectives
Main Objective
The main objective of the case study is to explore barriers to diversity in the New York State
Education Department.
Specific Objectives
The all-encompassing reason for this study was to look at the changed kinds of barriers to
a variety regarding the NYSED. All the more explicitly, this review was embraced to recognize
the presence of boundaries that may be one of a kind to NYSED and to analyze proof of
boundaries recognized in surviving writing on variety. The accompanying exploratory
examination questions directed the review:
Research Questions
(a) What hierarchical boundaries can variety be unmistakably recognized?
(b) What kinds of imperatives are confronted by government organizations while carrying out a
variety of drives?

5
(c) How can investigating hierarchical boundaries to variety illuminate specialists and
researchers about the ramifications of overseeing variety in the public area?
Significance of the Study
Investigating the information gathered from the examination through internal reports and
semi-organized meetings uncovered various social, underlying, and semantic hindrances. The
outcomes from the review upheld lines to assortment distinguished in surviving writing. Average
help necessities and the organization's way of life hindered various endeavours. The impacts of
informal organizations restricted responsibility in employing, and poor communication of the
vision for type additionally slowed the variety drive.
Scope And Limitations of the Study
The case study can understand different barriers to diversity in organizations.
Implementations can be put in place to prevent the obstacles. The limitation of the study is that it
only focuses on the education department and not all the organizations.
Operational Definition of Terms
Diversity
Diversity can and alludes to any apparent distinction among individuals, including age,
geographic beginning, sexual inclination, residency in an association, and instructive foundation,
notwithstanding ethnic-racial classifications. Advocates of overseeing variety fight that it is more
than the privilege suggested by A.A. Overseeing variety likewise includes establishing a positive
workplace in which acknowledgement of scope of contrasts makes them tasteful.

6

Chapter Two

Variety and Representative Bureaucracy

The government is concerned about more than simply diversity. They typically try to reflect the
population to make suitable policy choices. Representative bureaucracy can be "passive" at
times, as evidenced by the agency's staff. The personality of the general populace (Bailey. 2015).
On the other hand, the bureaucracy frequently actively represents one or even more groups in its
clients by vigorously supporting rules that directly benefit one or more categories of an agency's
customers ( Gupta, 2019). AA and diversity programs may help with both active and passive
representations.
Some condemn the representative bureaucratic system for its normative nature and measurement
methods, but many see it augmentation America's fundamental democratic beliefs. Idealists
challenge the need for deliberate tactics to administer equitable, effective, and responsive
government institutions. Jansens and Steyaert (2019) discovered, for example, that there was
"much less agreement among supervisors that their work units would be more productive if they
represented the demographic make-up of the labor population" (p. 145). More debate surrounds
how representation assessment was done and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing
demographic criteria, criteria for the workforce, as well as other metrics
Organization Changes and Barriers to Diversity

They integrate historically marginalized populations into the workforce due to management's
internal drive or external forces. The delicate nature of ethnic interactions and bureaucratic
inertia may hinder progress, yet firms may implement diversity programs employing tried-and-
true methods ( Sabharwal et al., 2014). Organizations can benefit from effective diversity

7
management in two ways. In some instances, diversity management efforts may be used to
improve diversity in an organization by explicitly recruiting persons Recruiting people from
disadvantaged minorities, and reducing impediments to their enrollment. In other circumstances,
however, it requires the effective administration of an already varied administrative staff
In the context of our study, we focus on diversity management to enhance the proportion of
minority populations represented. This strategy must include organizational transformation
elements such as strong leadership, mission and vision formulation, employee participation,
strategy development, training, and accountability for AA and diverse goals (Kulkarni, 2015;
Benschop et al., 2002). Good leadership is essential to any diversity endeavor, even if money is
not allocated. Executives must provide an excellent example of honesty (Alkardry., 2017). The
most major hurdle to administrative reform and diversity programs has been identified as
organizational culture. However, several questions arise. Is corporate culture the same as
government culture? Is it feasible to interpret diversity differently for government and private
sectors? Will the same processes be utilized again and again to produce success?
Rice ( 2015)Over the past years, workplace diversity has become a frequently discussed topic.
Academic interests The accurate analysis of workplace diversity has remained minimal. The
majority of academics have shown their efforts in focusing on the importance of diversity in
workplaces. Our case study aims to identify the significance of diversity in public administration
considering the New York State Education Department, a public facility serving members of the
public. Most scholars have even produced Diversity training facilitated through models,
standards, and training modules. According to Prasad and Mills, diversity is still a notably
inadequately and under-theorized phenomenon in organizational literature. ( p 6)

8
Current workplace diversity scholarship may be divided into functionalist viewpoints and critical
perspectives. Functionalist ideas examine public administration diversity through the lens of
corporate success. These techniques are based on the assumption that diversity's beneficial and
harmful aspects in public administration may be identified, monitored, and regulated to benefit
the government ( Sabharwal et al., 2018). Many of the same philosophical and research traditions
underpin this functionalist approach. Organizational psychology, management of human
resources, and organization theory are all areas of study. Executive leadership, communication,
job motivation, decision-making, and other themes focus on conceptual and empirical
research—organizational development/learning, group dynamics, and corporate. The purpose of
labor From a functionalist standpoint, both study and practice's goal is to define how public
administration can enhance government services and their effectiveness. Rice (2015) says
By managing diversity, I imply formulating and executing administrative processes and
procedures to regulate individuals to maximize the potential benefits of diversity while
minimizing the possible downsides. maximizing all workers' capacity to contribute to corporate
goals and function effectively without being limited by group identities such as gender, color,
ethnicity, age, and department association (p.141)
Diversity Administration benefits the government and ethical, economic, and other groups.
According to Riccucci (2021) and Pullen et al. (2017), worker diversity is not only the right thing
to do, but it will ultimately boost the agency's performance and global standing.
A critical philosophy follows another strategy to diversity in public services. It recommends that
case studies move "beyond an unequivocal acceptance of the instrumental legitimacy of
diversity" ( Roberson et al. 2017. , p. 434). Critical research and application for analysis on many
management issues, such as "epistemological issues Technocracy and socialization (McKay and

9
Avery, 2015). Such perspectives of view (for example, Marxist, feminist, etc.) Power and
influence issues have far-reaching effects for all organization members, but they may be highly
damaging for minority groups. (e.g., women, racial, people those with impairments, the elderly)
Those in positions of authority frequently endeavor, even subconsciously, to maintain control,
whereas those in lower ranks and the weak want to attain equity in the system.
As a consequence of this vitality, there are constant disagreements and attempts to resolve these
conflicts (Sigh,2014, p 47). Thus, a critical assessment of diversity in public offices seeks deeper
insights into the inner workings of firms to highlight the systemic discrepancies that exist at
various corporate levels. This exposing of injustice, so to speak, might eventually lead to a
considerable rethinking of such programs and the creation of emancipatory improvements (
Roberson et al. 2017. , p. 434), highlighting the importance of the organization's regulations and
procedures. In general, workplace diversity and practices are embedded in highly charged
political, cultural, historical, and symbolic contexts perpetuating supremacy and injustice.
Exploratory Model of potential barriers.
These prior investigations were initially triggered by observations that the modern barriers
research failed to account for approaches in which public services might have created
institutional barriers to access—the analysis aimed to uncover the border of diversity in public
administrations. As the interviews continued, the work of Bailey (2015), Gupta (2019 ), and
Rice (2015 ) proved helpful. Their articles offer a variety of potential human service agency
approaches to diversity problems while admitting that organizational responses to diversity may
vary rather than being constant and static. Rice (2015 ), for example, presents a paradigm for
classifying human care organizations/agencies along a continuum spanning from discriminatory
to non-discriminatory, excluding to ant discriminatory and inclusive. As shown in Figure I1, As

10
the name implies, biased organizations foster supremacy while excluding or even dismissing
differences. Middle-ground agencies/organizations are referred to as non-discriminatory
organizations. Such organizations allow diversity but frequently conceal or disregard power
imbalances between groups. They may promote diversity as a "good" issue, but they maintain
that there is any noticeable or even subtle prejudice among their ranks." In these
organizations/agencies, diversity becomes a symbolic effort or a metaphorical offering towards
the employees. As Minors points out, many organizations think that reducing barriers to work
would result in equity. This presumption overlooks the impact of company culture on how
welcome racial minorities feel like employees, investors, members of the board, and volunteers.
(See page 437).
Women and racial minorities are accepted at this level. Still, they must adhere to the majority
ideals of the department culture or achieve specific implicit employment standards that are
aligned with their symbolic hiring.

Fig 11 from "Managing Diversity In Public Sector WorkForce" by Rice( 2015).

11
Anti-discriminatory departments are at the other extreme of the spectrum. Such institutions value
diversity, do not allow discrimination, are diverse In practices and policies, constantly embrace
inclusiveness, and work relentlessly to abolish excluding behaviours, procedures, and hurdles.
Departments Go from symbolic to substantive at this level, making significant efforts to include
the public in judgment calls. Staff and management work together at all ranks to put an end to
systemic inequality and create the department "equitable, adaptable, and accessible at all levels"
(Riccucci 2021, p. 204). According to Minors, all human non-profits must aspire at this
threshold, but only a few succeed despite attempts.
This discontinuity can be attributed to several factors. Many department Inequities arise due to
traditions and uncontested policies in their current surroundings. Furthermore, despite great
aspirations of excellent staff and management, these obstacles continue to put pressure on
organizations' workplace conditions (McKay and Avary, 2015). The problems and impediments
are firmly ingrained in the department's culture. According to Pullen et al. ( 2017, p. 326), the
invisible and widely accepted use of authority sustains bureaucratic authority. Prejudices are
inherent to organizations.
Individual actions can alleviate, but not eliminate, these issues. To restructure social systems, we
must first recognize their enormous invisible dimensions. The primary silences and denials
around privilege serve as a political tool in this case. Making these activities illegal leaves
conceptions about equality and equity inadequate, protecting unearned rights and conferred
authority ( Roberson et al., 2017). The majority of whites' talk today appears to be about equal
opportunity to reach a position of dominance while dismissing the reality of racism—systems of
domination.

12
Change can only be achieved via continual evaluation and study of the agency's internal
workings — e.g., institutional reflection (Rice, 2015) — by an extensive network of persons
from all organizational levels. Such evaluation and analysis are required to discover and
eliminate boundaries and obstacles that form and remain inside the department.

13

References

Alkadry, M. G., Blessett, B., & Patterson, V. L. (2017). Public administration, diversity, and the
ethic of getting things done. Administration & Society, 49(8), 1191-1218.
Bailey, M. L. (2015). Cultural competency and the practice of public administration. In Diversity
and Public Administration (pp. 179-196). Routledge.
Benschop, Y., Holgersson, C., Van den Brink, M., & Wahl, A. (2015). Future challenges for
practices of diversity management in organizations. The Oxford handbook of diversity in
organizations, 553-574.
Emerson, K., Nabatchi, T., & Balogh, S. (2012). An integrative framework for collaborative
governance. Journal of public administration research and theory, 22(1), 1-29.
Grissom, J. A., Kern, E. C., & Rodriguez, L. A. (2015). The "representative bureaucracy" in
education: Educator workforce diversity, policy outputs, and outcomes for disadvantaged
students. Educational Researcher, 44(3), 185-192.
Gupta, A. (2019). Women leaders and organizational diversity: their critical role in promoting
diversity in organizations. Development and learning in organizations: An International
Journal.
Janssens, M., & Steyaert, C. (2019). A practice-based theory of diversity: Respecifying (in)
equality in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 44(3), 518-537.

14
King, C. S., Feltey, K. M., & Susel, B. O. N. (2015). The question of participation: Toward
authentic public participation in public administration. In The age of direct citizen
participation (pp. 391-408). Routledge.
Kulkarni, M. (2015). Language‐based diversity and faultlines in organizations. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 128-146.
McKay, P. F., & Avery, D. R. (2015). Diversity climate in organizations: Current wisdom and
domains of uncertainty. In research in personnel and human resources management.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Perry, J. L., & Christensen, R. K. (2015). Handbook of public administration. John Wiley &
Sons.
Pullen, A., Vachhani, S., Gagnon, S., & Cornelius, N. (2017). Critical diversity, philosophy and
praxis.
Riccucci, N. M. (2021). Managing diversity in public sector workforces. Routledge.
Rice, M. F. (2015). Teaching public administration education in the postmodern era: Connecting
organizational culture to diversity to social equity. In diversity and public
administration (pp. 128-147). Routledge.
Rice, M. F. (2015). Diversity and public administration. ME Sharpe.
Roberson, Q., Ryan, A. M., & Ragins, B. R. (2017). The evolution and future of diversity at
work. Journal of applied psychology, 102(3), 483.
Sabharwal, M., Hijal-Moghrabi, I., & Royster, M. (2014). Preparing future public servants: Role
of diversity in public administration. Public Administration Quarterly, 206-245.

15
Sabharwal, M., Levine, H., & D'Agostino, M. (2018). A conceptual content analysis of 75 years
of diversity research in public administration. Review of Public Personnel
Administration, 38(2), 248-267.
Singh, D. (2014). Managing cross-cultural diversity: issues and challenges in global
organizations. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 3, 43-50.
Sussner, K. M., Edwards, T. A., Thompson, H. S., Jandorf, L., Kwate, N. O., Forman, A., … &
Valdimarsdottir, H. B. (2011). Ethnic, racial and cultural identity and perceived benefits
and barriers related to genetic testing for breast cancer among at-risk women of African
descent in New York City. Public health genomics, 14(6),