Sample Criminal Justice Paper on Terrorist Groups in Pakistan

Terrorism remains the biggest threat to national security in Pakistan as well as the rest of the world. The emergence of several terrorist groups over the years has made the war on terrorism even more challenging. However, efforts are still being made by many nations to combat terrorism and ensure that people are safe. One of the major causes of terrorism as put by Murphy (2014 p.183) is extremism backed by the application of Islamic teachings in a discriminative manner to radicalize the militias who are mostly the youth. This has helped in brain washing the youth to believe that terrorism is a good cause.

For many years, Pakistan was considered an ally to terrorist groups until 18th March 2004 when it was declared a non-ally (Gunaratna & Iqbal, 2011 p. 211 ). One of the reasons it might have been seen to be an ally is because of the several terrorist groups that have formed their base in Pakistan. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) has made it easier for these groups to settle in Pakistan and run their activities without any obstruction from the government or outside forces (Blumenthal &Mhnken, 2014 p.133).  This has been attributed by the fact that the Pakistan government has neglected these areas, their terrain makes it difficult for the government, and other forces to reach and get the necessary information needed to fight the terrorist groups.

Several factors have contributed to the rise of terrorist groups in Pakistan and around the world. One of them is poverty, which leaves many young people uneducated and ready to undertake any activity that will ensure they get their daily meals and are support themselves and their families. Other factors include lack of law enforcement, foreign involvement, lack of law enforcement and lack of employment, which leaves many young people idle and vulnerable.

 

 

The terrorist groups are still recruiting many young people and successfully fighting them is still a challenge. The factors that have led to the rise of terrorist groups and terrorism cannot be dealt with all at once and effectively. They need to be dealt with in a sober manner and in phases to ensure that they are effective. From the history of terrorism in Pakistan, it is evident that Islam is being used by extremists to fulfill their agendas. Dealing with this issue will need leaders who truly understand and practice Islam so that they can be able to differentiate between the true teachings and those being used by the extremists in terrorist groups.

In the next 1-3 years, the issue of terrorist groups and terrorism might prove to be more challenging. This is because these terrorist groups are still recruiting more and more young people worldwide. Many of their efforts to attack the western countries after the 911 attack especially America has been unfruitful (Murphy, 2014 p. 19). They have planned about 60 unsuccessful attacks meaning that they still believe in their cause and they are still making more plans. More and more young people are not able to access education facilities mainly due to lack of funds and therefore cannot be employed.

Poverty and lack of employment leaves these young people at a very vulnerable position and the terrorist groups take advantage of that. More efforts need to be put towards ensuring that people in various communities have access to education and places that might be suspected of training young people in terrorism are thoroughly checked. If these places are found to be training grounds for terrorists, they are to be shut down and the people involved dealt with accordingly.

 

 

The issue of terrorism can only be dealt with effectively if social and economic factors are well looked into. In order to deal with the menace, leaders have to be fully aware of the root causes of the social and economic problems that face the people especially in Pakistan where the terrorist groups have formed base.  One of the reasons these groups have been welcomed in Pakistan FATA is because the community there was simply exercising what they know culturally (Murphy, 2005 p. 192). They are strong believers in religion and cultural practices. It is part of their tradition to offer protection and shelter to the less fortunate. Proving the same for the terrorist groups was simply in accordance to their traditions.

Fighting terrorism in this region is very challenging. The leaders in charge need to understand that they have the duty of educating the people on why they should not welcome these terrorist groups in as much as their traditions move them to do so. This will be challenged by the fact that the terrorist groups have already been rooted there and operate from there. The current and previous regimes have neglected FATA due to its terrain, the beliefs of the local community and the invasion by terrorist groups (Margolis, 2002 p.112). The area is therefore not subject to the law of the land that governs the rest of the country.

FATA has its own law and is governed by the various terrorist groups that are based there. Their cause is to kill people they believe are against them and have done various wrongs to Muslims. They therefore recruit young people to train them in following their cause. These people are misguided and the Holy teachings misinterpreted to suit their cause. The lack of law enforcement in this region has led to the rise of illegal business mainly in drugs and weapons that are used in terrorist activities. This is thought to be their source of income and thus very challenging to deal with.

 

The use of drones and satellites by the US intelligence forces has helped a lot in getting rid of some of the leaders of these terrorist groups. However, there is a challenge since the troops and other forces involved cannot access the area physically. This is due to the danger involved seeing that the area is fully occupied by terrorist groups and its terrain is not favorable. A lot of funds have been channeled towards fighting terrorism. Many attacks have been stopped, but the war on terrorism is far from over.

Good advice offered to a decision maker is crucial and needs a lot of thought and soberness. From the look of the current situation, it is the young people that are being lured into terrorist groups with the promise of a better life after undertaking their activities (Hadi, 2016 p. 127). It would, therefore, be of help for the various decision makers to channel part of the funds being used to fight terrorism in educating the youth on the tactics used by these groups to recruit and how to avoid them. It would also help if part of these funds were used to academically educate these young people and help them in getting employment or starting their own business ventures.

According to Murphy (2010 p. 183), the extremists apply Islamic teachings in a discriminative manner in order to recruit members and justify their cause. It would, therefore, help if decision makers understood the importance of educating all the youth on the teachings used by these groups and how different they are from the true teachings. Terrorism affects people from all walks of life regardless of their social, economic, religious and political status. Teaching people especially the youth on the specific teachings used by these extremists would go a long way in ensuring that the youth are aware of the bait used and are well prepared when approached.

It is evident that these terrorist groups have the same goal and others have even merged their efforts creating a bigger community of terrorists (Gunaratna & Iqbal , 2011 p. 55).  It is also clear that they understand psychology and know that once they convince young people of their cause and are able to change their mind set, they are able to manipulate them and use them whichever way they please. Most of these terrorists undergo rigorous trainings and teachings. This creates a challenge for the forces involved in fighting against them since they are up against people who have the same knowledge and equipment they have.

A decision maker would therefore need to understand that they are dealing with smart people since some of them are highly educated and fully understand the risks involved and other intelligence matters. This would therefore mean that a decision maker needs to be able to be ahead of the terrorists in planning to avoid more attacks like it has been done before. It is still not very clear where the groups get their funding from. The idea that they could be dealing in drugs and weapons is only speculation. According to Murphy (2014 p. 212) a lot of information is based on speculation and therefore it would be wise for a decision maker to first of all work with facts.

A thorough research needs to be carried out on all these terrorist groups in order to get a better understanding of their activities and their plans. Various countries have been attacked across the globe and therefore this is not a single nation’s fight. It is a fight that involves all nations and therefore a decision maker needs to work with other affected nations that are willing to put up a successful war on terrorism. Pakistan has been at the heart of all the terror due to its alleged involvement in terrorism until it was declared a non-ally. It has also been at the center of all the terror due to its attacks after supporting the US in the war against terrorism.

 

Political problems have also been at the center of the terrorist attacks especially in Pakistan. The Pakistan government has been unstable for a while now. Its lack of involvement in FATA has further worsened the terrorist movements.  Part of the agenda on the terrorist groups’ activities is to take over political power and pay back the atrocities committed against Muslims especially in Afghanistan (Murphy, 2014 p. 197). There is also the issue of establishing an Islamic state.  For the problem to be properly dealt with, it will need a much stronger government to deal with the political problems facing Pakistan, which have been the primary reason for terrorism.

Another piece of advice for a decision maker would be to resolve the Kashmir problem (Murphy, 2014 p.88). A lasting peace needs to be found with India, sectarian violence needs to be stopped and the economic and political grievances of Pashtuns resolved. As long as there are different groups that are dissatisfied with various issues, there will always be trouble in the form of terrorism since that is the only way they think is best to communicate. Once these issues are dealt with, then the war on terrorism can be on the right course.

Establishment of some sort of peace in Afghanistan once the US troops and its allies leave will also be a good step towards dealing with terrorism (Hadi, 2016 p.103). This is an international matter and needs the collaboration of various nations. Terrorism has affected many nations, not only Pakistan and America. Once the US leaves Afghanistan, there is bound to be security issues both in Pakistan and Afghanistan. It will need a strong Pakistan government to be able to deal with these security issues and a well-planned move to deal with the aftermath of the US fallout from Afghanistan.

 

 

 

References

Blumenthal, D. & Mahnken, T. (2014). Strategy in Asia: The Past, Present and Future of

Regional Security. Stanford: Stanford Security Studies.

Gunaratna, R. & Iqbal, K. (2011). Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero. Islington: Reaktion Books.

Hadi, S. (2016). Looming Black Shadows: The Rise of Terrorist States and the New Generation

al-Qaeda. Delhi: PartridgeIndia

Murphy, E. (2014). The Making of Terrorism in Pakistan: Historical and Social Roots

Extremism (Critical Terrorism Studies). Abingdon: Routledge.

Margolis, M. (2002). War at The Top of The World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and

Tibet. Abingdon; Routledge.

Sareen, S. (2005). The Jihad Factory: Pakistan’s Islamic Revolution in The Making. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation.