Sample Criminal Justice Paper on What Role Does ‘Economic Marginalization’ and ‘Social Exclusion’ Play in Crime?

What Role Does ‘Economic Marginalization’ and ‘Social Exclusion’ Play in Crime?

Jora (2019) observes that the 2008 financial crises wiped away about 7% of the US GDP but The Department of Justice (DOJ) sent no one to prison because somehow, in most of the United States, you cannot simply prosecute a company, you can only prosecute someone at the top of it. Such legislation have led to white-collar criminals getting emboldened and further their white-collar crimes as they’ve seen the cost benefit of their criminal activities because only scapegoats are sent to prison.

On the other hand, no rich person has ever been on the death row. For example from 1992 to 1999 in Harris County, Texas, anyone who could afford a lawyer was not convicted to death sentence, in spite of them committing similarly heinous crimes as those defendants who could only hire a public attorney.

Panter (2017), submitted about The World Bank’s Equality Project which was set-up to examine institutional factors that obstruct access to financial systems and labor market by ethnic, religious and sexual minorities. These policy and legal restrictions directly affect the ability to effect proper economic performance. Consequently, this affects the economy because of the huge human capital wastage. This means large sections of the population will not access basic human services, sufficient and secure housing the opportunity to acquire good jobs, best education, personal security and other import socioeconomic matters. Such social and income inequalities will certainly lead to social unrest.

The said Inclusion Matters project made a compilation of the legal structure of six random study countries: Morocco, Tanzania, Bulgaria, Mexico, Vietnam and the Netherlands. In these study countries, laws that that were drafted with the intention to protect minorities from discrimination in the labor market were studied and were found to be quite comprehensive. However, a cursory look at the study countries’ anti-discrimination laws in the property and social-protection fields were found to be insufficient and in some instances, were in direct contravention with the very same nation’s non-discrimination laws. Sexual minorities were the least protected under the study country laws. In Morocco and Tanzania, homosexuality is a crime and they are often persecuted by the state. There are no legal protections for sexual minorities and consequently, hate crime and economic marginalization is prevalent in these two states.

In the UK, there was a lack of effective national policies to engage local communities or address the lack of creation of opportunities for people thus leading to structural causes of decline. This led to social problems like drugs, community breakdown, bad schools, crime and unemployment.

The Unit’s report recommended an approach called the three ‘strands’ to help combat the prevalent exclusion of communities socially. Firstly, action had to be taken to ensure help was found to help the lone parents, disabled and unemployed. This was to go hand-in-hand with dealing with the issues of failing crime, public health and schools. The second strand entails introducing or improving funding for programs that support regeneration of poor neighborhoods. The third strand is all about improving interdepartmental cooperation and even the involvement of hired experts so as to ensure coherence and a ‘joined-up’ approach.

Greer (2013) is of the view that image and representation portrayed by the media permeates all sections of social existence. The Media connects to and emphasizes political and social concerns. The media not only entertains, it illuminates, sometimes erroneously, the state of the nation. Whether as news or fiction, the media churns out huge quantities content that vividly depicts deviance, violence and control.

 

Social Contexts of Crime

Anti-social behavior can manifest in many ways and it can develop through normal social interaction either in the family setting or in the wider community. It has been observed that families can impact the causation of anti-social behavior for example, a parents’ history of alcohol abuse, anti-social behaviors, parental and drug abuse, and economic distress within the family.

Socioeconomic Effects of Criminal Behavior

First off, the manufacture or illicit production and the possession or distribution of drugs is a crime according to many societies. Secondly, the drug cartels can lead to other unrelated crimes occurring for example homicides due to turf wars, illegal use of guns and terrorism. Drugs may be used to make illegal money which will lead to money-laundering that will doubtlessly ruin the economy. Research has also found that there is a relationship between substance use and delinquent behavior. Individuals who engage in early sexual activity are more likely to have engaged in delinquency and drug abuse. Teenage girls who have suffered early pregnancy are reportedly to have engaged in increased prior use of drugs and alcohol.

Researchers in the US, after examination of deviant groups, concluded that although there are a number of deviations, some kinds of crime or delinquency often come before addiction. They reached the conclusion that an addiction career generally precedes the involvement in most property crimes. When addiction occurs, property crimes increase, with a further increase in narcotic use. One expert concluded that property crime occurrences were reduced significantly when an individual’s addiction career was ended (4, p. 197).

Researchers have concluded that there is a correlation between social attitudes, drug abuse and criminal activities. Users of opiates have led to the increase of criminal activities several times over and many heroin addicts are not thrilled by the idea of getting treatment.

Social Construction of Crime

It has been observed that any behavior is only labeled a crime through the process known as social construction. This means that the very similar behavior may be labeled criminal in one place and while in another place, it will be considered an act of honor or in the same place but at a different time. From a social constructionist’s perspective, whether certain behavior is labeled legal or illegal is not reliant on the content of particular behaviors but in the societal response of that behavior or the persons who committed it. As Berger and Luckmann observed in 1967, social constructionism is not an objective exercise but the opinion of the meaning of behaviors and events through the process of social interaction. Meanings of behaviors are socially organized and defined and are therefore subject to social change. Behavioral meanings and changes in their legal status results from social conflict for example racial discrimination, assisted suicide and abortion policy changes in the US.

Theories That Link Socioeconomic Factors to Crime

Strain Theory

Many theories have been advanced to link socioeconomic factors to crime. The first is strain theory which tries to find out the motivation for individuals to commit crime. It posits that normally, people will abide by rules and follow set down norms. It’s only when contradictions are introduced to their lives and the resultant stress that they would cause them to commit crime. Emile Durkheim’s came up anomie which is a situation where rules break down or are confusing so the people don’t know what to do or expect of other therefore a situation of chaos is created where almost break the law so as to survive. Robert Merton came up with an idea that due to the lack of equality between individuals when it comes to opportunity to achieve success, a observed that there will be subsequent stress created that can lead to one committing crime so as to achieve these goals.

Social Disorganization Theory 

The Chicago School championed this theory which focuses on environmental factors that affect an individual. This theory focuses on areas within the city which it christens ‘transition zones’. These zones are distinguished by poor health, poverty, morally bankrupt and poor housing. Such neighborhoods are normally characterized as being socially disorganized and are subsequently prone to unorthodox methods of social control and soaring crime rates.

Economic Theory

This theory of a rational economic man/woman proposes a model of crime whereby individuals look at the cost-benefit of every crime and try to find its economic value. The individual will try to rationalize the criminal act if the cost-benefit is worth it. That individual will choose to do an honest day’s work and shun crime if that job pays well or if the repercussions of being caught while committing a crime far outweigh the benefits of engaging in that activity.

Control Theory 

This theory focuses on the individual’s personal responsibility to avoid crime. Instead of asking why individuals engage in offending, it looks at reasons why they are unlikely to offend. This theory focuses on morality rules and codes that individuals have internalized.

 

 

Routine and Opportunity Activity Theory 

This theory puts forward the suggestion that a crime to take place, the following three qualifications need to be satisfied: a suitable target, a motivated offender and a lack of security/guardianship. Rising unemployment and opportunities to find acceptable levels of legal earnings will increase the people who are motivated to commit crime and the level of security.

Marxism

This theory brings to the fore conflicts between the various societal classes; Marx believed that in such a capitalist system, the society is made up of two classes, i.e. the business owners (bourgeoisie) who are in control of the means of production and the workers (proletariat), whose labor helps transforms raw materials into economically valuable goods. Because they control the means of production, the bourgeoisie limit the workers’ ability to obtain what they need to survive. To maximize on the acquisition of profits, business owners’ milk dry their laborers while paying the lowest possible wages. The bourgeoisie use social institutions that were formed to guard against such abuses as weapons against the proletariat.  Marx thus thought that the capitalist system would self destruct because the exploitation of the proletariat, who are the most important cog in the wheel of capitalism, would eventually be compelled to revolt against the bourgeoisie.

 

Conclusion

From the foregoing, I tried to find if there was evidence of a relationship between economic marginalization, social exclusion and crime. Chiricos (1987) studies found a correlation between unemployment and crime but this was mostly in property crime. Jora looked at how the DOJ handled cases involving the rich during the 2008 financial crisis and other white-collar crimes and contrasted it with how blue-collar criminals, who are mostly the poor, are treated and it’s easy to see how economic marginalization and legislative framework has led to the proliferation of certain types of crimes.

I then looked at how some behaviors are labeled crimes while the very same behaviors in some instances will not be labeled as such. I then looked at the various impacts of criminal behavior on the state and for this I found a direct correlation between substance abuse and deviance prevalence like robbery, rape and early teenage pregnancy. I also looked at how social exclusion, especially at the family level, will lead an individual to engaging in crime.

Finally, I looked at several theories that link economic factors and crime. Here, we found theories like strain, economic and Marxism theory which explain how economic factors can lead to imbalances in someone’s life thereby leading to crime. On the other hand, I detailed how theories like Marxism, social disorganization, control and opportunity and routine activity theory that put forth theories which affect the individual at the social level, creating strife in the person thereby leading that person to crime.

 

Recommendations

  1. Enact legislation that creates an equal opportunities in the jobs market
  2. Enact legislation that truly treats everyone equally before the eyes of the law.
  3. Enact legislation and policies which create equality in the allocation of state resources like housing
  4. Ensure policies are implemented to ensure equality in the creation of opportunity in the economic arena.
  5. Enforce or enact policies that focus primarily on the prevention of the uptake of drugs. Further steps should be taken to try to rehabilitate those who are hooked on drugs.
  6. Measures should be taken to ensure that previously marginalized communities get preferential treatment in all sectors of the society from this point onwards to ensure parity is achieved at a faster pace

 

References

Chappelow, J. (2019). Marxism. [Online]. Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marxism.asp [Accessed 13 Feb. 2020].

Chiricos, T. G. (1987). Rates of crime and unemployment. ‎Florida State University.

Greer, C. (2013). Crime and Media: Understanding the Connections. In C. Hale, K. Hayward, A. Wahadin & E. Wincup (eds.), Criminology. 3RD edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp25 (ISBN: 978-0-19-927036-1).

Jora, M. (2019). (How) Our Law Favors the Rich and Punishes the Poor. [Online] Available at: https://medium.com/@mariusjora/how-our-law-favors-the-rich-and-punishes-the-poor-36fa223ea4eb [Accessed 13 Feb. 2020].

Millie, A. (2009). Anti-Social Behaviour. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Percy-Smith, J. Policy Responses to Social Exclusion towards Inclusion? Janie Open University Press, Buckingham, Philadelphia.

Panter, R. E. (May 2017). Economic Marginalization of Minorities: Do Laws Provide the Needed Protections? [online] Available at: http://blogs.worldbank.org/psd/economic-marginalization-minorities-do-laws-provide-needed-protections [Accessed 13 Feb. 2020].

Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime. New York: Oxford University Press.

UN International Drug Control Programme. (1996). The Social Impact of Drug Abuse. Vienna: UN International Drug Control Programme.

World Bank. (2013). Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington, D.C: The World Bank.

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