Sample Dissertation Paper on Sustainable inputs in private housing projects in urban areas for maximum output: the case of Nairobi

1        Introduction

The paper essentially focuses on understanding inputs and outputs in urban housing and planning based on private housing contractors. By using sustainable inputs and setting goals on achieving sustainable outputs, private developers can play a critical role in transforming the housing market through adding value for products to consumers as well as aiding the general effort by governments to implement sustainability in cities (Hosseini, Fuente and Pons, 2016). More importantly, private developers and their investors can gain more from sustainable projects, due to high quality outcomes and low maintenance costs of the house once they are completed (Tahvonen and Airaksinen, 2018).

1.1      Background

All around the world, cities are growing at a very fast rate because of the influx of people seeking opportunities. According to a study by (Noor, Asmawi and Abdullah, 2015), it is predicted than more than 60% of any country’s population will be living in cities by 2030. This requires the presence of continuous flow of resources to cater to the needs of these people.

Housing is already a major issue in urban areas, along with problems like pollution, congestion, and unsanitary conditions that create unsustainability (Wei et al, 2015). Urban planning thus plays a critical role in determining how future cities will deal with such issues, and one way to deal with it is through implementing sustainable housing (Klopp and Petretta, 2017). Both the government and private sector can work towards sustainability, hence the role of the private sectors in how they can achieve to utilise sustainable inputs and access sustainable outputs is discussed.

1.2      Research problem

The private sector in any area of investment is heavily focused on making profit. The profit oriented objective has resulted into innovative ways of the private sector releasing products that are useful and solve problems, especially when it came to developmental aspect within the society. This is no different when the private sector is involved in making profit when they invest in housing.

The main problem comes in when the private sector decides to invest in sustainable projects that do not result into the expected profits. The investment in sustainable aspects is very expensive and could threaten losses if not well planned for. This implies those if investors in Kenya do not focus their efforts on understand where and how to sustainably invest in housing, the results could be negative and would affect more than the private sector. Thus, it is time that the private sector role is not only examined in sustainability, but also a solution or path for sustainable housing outcomes as well as a sustainable business environment is looked at. Therefore, the study will address what strategies and inputs can the private sector use to ensure they produce sustainable products, and what else do they stand to gain when they invest sustainably.

1.3      Research context

The research context is that of Nairobi, Kenya, which the capital city of the country is. Nairobi is a fast growing city in terms of business, population, education, and other areas. There are currently about four million Kenyans living in Nairobi and these numbers are estimated to increase exponentially (World Population Review, 2019). According to the Habitat for Humanity, the housing deficit in Kenya is about 2 million units, with each year the deficit growing by 200,000 units (World Bank, 2017). A majority of these deficits are in urban areas like Nairobi.  Therefore, the research has come at the right time to determine how the private sector can work towards reducing the deficit while creating a sustainable outcome.

1.4      Research justification

Many private housing projects ae started with the aim of making profits at the end of the project. However, focus profit maximisation alone is not enough in the future if sustainability is not included. Private developers can achieve continued growth, enhanced quality, and confidence from investors by investing in sustainable products. The continuity of business in the 21st century relies on innovativeness and sustainable strategies. In housing, implementing sustainable inputs will lead to direct sustainable outputs for customers, investors, the environment, and the government, thus creating a holistic positive outcome. Therefore, the private housing sector in Kenya, specifically in the capital city has a crucial role to play in the transformation of the ecological as well as business environment. Thus, this paper will seek to fill the research gap where the focus on the private sector and what they could contribute to housing sustainability has been obscured. Not many papers focus on the role of the private sector in adding value to housing for the sake of the overall agenda of sustainability and not just for profit alone.


1.5      Research aim and objectives

The aim of the research is to objectively look at the sustainable inputs and outputs of housing construction for the private sector projects in Nairobi, in order to provide solutions as to how the private sector can help to transform sustainability practice for their own benefit as well as that of other stakeholders in the city. The focus on the sustainability of the projects takes both a short term and long term outlook into creating sustainable solutions.

The research objectives are:

  1. To investigate how private planners can add valuable inputs to housing to create sustainability in Nairobi
  2. To provide a way to evaluate sustainable output from private housing projects in Nairobi


1.6      Research questions

The following are the research questions:

  1. What strategies can private developers engage in to ensure sustainable inputs in housing projects in Nairobi Kenya?
  2. How can the private sector investors evaluate the outputs and gains from housing projects in Nairobi


2        References

World Bank. 2017. Kenya Needs 2 Million More Low-income Homes: Building Them Would Boost Its Economic Growth.

World Population Review. 2019. Nairobi Population 2019.

Hosseini, S.A., de la Fuente, A. and Pons, O., 2016. Multicriteria decision-making method for sustainable site location of post-disaster temporary housing in urban areas. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management142(9), p.04016036.

Tahvonen, O. and Airaksinen, M., 2018. Low-density housing in sustainable urban planning–Scaling down to private gardens by using the green infrastructure concept. Land Use Policy75, pp.478-485.

Noor, N.M., Asmawi, M.Z. and Abdullah, A., 2015. Sustainable Urban Regeneration: GIS and Hedonic Pricing Method in determining the value of green space in housing area. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences170, pp.669-679.

Wei, Y., Huang, C., Lam, P.T. and Yuan, Z., 2015. Sustainable urban development: A review on urban carrying capacity assessment. Habitat International46, pp.64-71.

Klopp, J.M. and Petretta, D.L., 2017. The urban sustainable development goal: Indicators, complexity and the politics of measuring cities. Cities63, pp.92-97.