Cognitive Learning Theories
Self-regulated learning is a systematic and active process used by learners to attain their personal goals. The social cognitive theory involves the use of behaviors and cognitive abilities to develop individual acquisition of knowledge, skills, and self-regulated competency-based models within the social context. In the Social cognitive theory, parents, peers, and teachers play an essential role in being the social models (Nevid, 2011). The self-regulated cognitive model can be implemented successfully into the classroom through the teachers who can teach the students how to self-assess their performance and compare it with the past performance record based on the students’ adjustment to the model. The main assumptions of cognitive theory are that individuals are the drivers of the progress and competency, and are active agents whose actions directly impact their learning and development behavior. According to Won Wolters, & Mueller, (2018), self-regulated learning is an excellent foundation for academic endeavors and one of the determinants of development and learning.
In classical conditioning, the behavioral theory can begin with automatic student reflex. Therefore, the behavioral approach is best utilized by observing the actual behaviors of individuals instead of watching their mood, emotions, and thoughts. Consequently, teachers should use a reward system for training pupils especially at the lower levels of learning (Nevid, 2011). The reward system aims to help the children continue to exhibit the desired behaviors because they want to earn the reward. As a result, this builds a habit in the child within the classroom setting that enhances competitiveness and eventually change of behavior (Skuballa, IDammert, & Renkl, 2018). However, teachers must ensure that the students can follow the behavioral theory, unlike the self-regulated approach where the student does the self-evaluation of his/her performance.
Nevid, J. S. (2011). Essentials of psychology: Concepts and applications. Cengage Learning. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=UnF9JhxbMVoC&oi=fnd&pg=PR6&dq=Jeffrey+S.+Nevid+Essentials+of+Psychology+concepts+and+applications+&ots=fgvJu8mUZI&sig=k0q7S7by3-
Skuballa, I. T., Dammert, A., & Renkl, A. (2018). Two kinds of meaningful multimedia learning: Is cognitive activity alone as good as combined behavioral and cognitive activity? Learning and Instruction, 54, 35-46. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959475217304516
Won, S., Wolters, C. A., & Mueller, S. A. (2018). Sense of belonging and self-regulated learning: Testing achievement goals as mediators. The Journal of Experimental Education, 86(3), 402-418. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00220973.2016.1277337