Bilingualism denotes the presence of diverse languages in social life as well as the community. The undertaking results to subsequent situations outlined below. They compose of personal, international and social/national/regional bilingualism. My focus is on Saudi Arabia bilingual policies and programs to be implemented to oversee the success of education. Most people who reside in Saudi Arabia communicate in Arabic and English. At the national level, bilingual features that determine the existence of two languages include newspapers and magazines. An individual studies the second language after getting enough knowledge about the local language. A national program needs to be introduced to the school curriculum to help student be trained on second language. The curriculum to be implemented at the national level includes Dual Language Immersion. It involves teaching student in two verbal communications. First, students will be taught in one language while strengthening the concepts discussed through the second language (Hadi-Tabassum, 2012). Thus, more weight is laid on the minor language while allocating less time to the major language. This will transform as students rise in the program radar.
On indication to micro-level, subjects need to be rewritten in the foreign language. Training students in the second language enhances their understanding and proficiency in vocalizations and lettering second language. Conversely, they make comparison and give examples in their first language. Bilingual guiding principle denotes that every student be trained in English. Children will thereafter get an interpretation of the content in their own language. Thus, it gives them an opportunity to study in their native language. Some of the features to be included in the education programs include curriculum planning, subject content and age difference. First, planning involves coming up with a step by step curriculum that focuses on the education needs of students. School going students will be introduced to second language learning at a certain level to enhance their understanding of the foreign language. This infers that, below certain level of education; individuals will get education through their mother tongue. This is to prepare them for the task ahead and improve their cognitive status. Subjects will be delivered in English so that students can be able to interpret and write. Lastly, the age of student matters when it comes to education programs. English second learners needs not be introduced into this language at a very tender age (Hamers & Blanc, 2013).The reason behind this is that children understand concepts at ease when taught in a language they can understand. In addition, using the vernacular/ native language on a day-to-day basis increases the possibility of good mastery and acquisition of competences. Thus, success in the second language is inclined to the initial acquaintance of the vernacular language.
The assessment programs involve English exams that will test on the mastery of content. The tests are performed at diverse stages of study. English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) is the assessment used to ascertain pupil’s coaching need. Therefore, instructors are in a position to ascertain the moderation of needs for students. Appropriate measures will be undertaken to help student overcome the challenges discovered. The importance of developing programs at a national and local level is to ensure that the community becomes a bilingual society. The mastery of second language by Saudi citizens is essential for society and individual development. The motivation behind this is that individuals will work on their social communication with other people in the world. They will be exposed to work in any place. In adding up, citizens will compete with others in the corporate world.
Dual Language Immersion
This program involves students going through their school curriculum using native language while learning literacy skills and communication of a second language. The assessment of the education know-how is carried out through the two languages. Content will be written in two languages so that native speakers can evaluate and compare the two scenarios. This system indicates that 90% of the teaching experience be carried out in native language while 10% be conducted in English. This is at the kindergarten level because students are not conversant with the new system. As they proceed to the fourth grade, the ratio will change in the teaching of these languages. Teachers ensure that they coach their student using both languages at equal measure. It is because student’s brain and cognitive status have developed over the period that pupils have been at school. The percentage time stands at 50:50 for both languages. Dual language immersion instructors will have to undergo through a rigorous training program in both languages to ensure that they have the necessary skills. They will build up educational goals to attain within definite duration of time. This aids in coming up with a teaching program that is aligned to the school curriculum. Students are given instructions in both languages hence able to use them interchangeably. By so doing, the country will be at a better position in terms of individual competitiveness in the job market. Aspects/components of the two cultures are taught at school to ensure that students develop dual cultures (Kote, 2011).
The main objective of this program is to improve student results in their academic life in regards to English. Thus, English language learners will have a rare opportunity to gain knowledge of a second language. The opportunity created by these programs to students includes furthering education in foreign institution. This opportunity is rare because many students learn in their mother tongue. A student must be able to communicate and write in English to be enrolled by these institutions. The inception of English lesson will have a lot of benefits to students since it is essential for their career development. Second, seal the wide gap created amid English native speakers and second learners. Being able to write, communicate and read in English is an essential aspect for Arabic students especially those moving to the United States to further their education at the universities. Students will get adequate preparation for the future which is characterized by intense competition and diversity. Thus, the school program should be set in a manner that it helps prepare student for the tasks ahead. In addition, cultural education for both languages is incorporated in the program of study. This means that education intend to produce all-round individuals who understand their culture as well as foreign cultures. Therefore, the program is the most excellent choice for school. It is also effective hence able to achieve the goals of education. According to Hoffmann, Arabic speaking students who passed through the program have been doing well in English related subjects as well as in other subjects. Moreover, the program aids develop interpersonal and communication skills used in everyday life (Hoffmann, 2011). Today, the globe is unified through market liberalization and globalization. Student must be taught in diverse languages so as to communicate with other. In the past, traders used to work within their regional market. However, a lot of things have been altered. Business people can trade with anybody from any corner of the globe provide he/she is connected to them through internet and other technological platforms. English is the mode of contact used by different nation globally.
Unlike other programs that are detail oriented, dual program focuses on individual development. This makes it the best program for starters as well as on-going English learners. A program established on the basis of content fails to meet the educational goals. The reason behind this is that it increases workload on students instead of improving their communication or reading skills. Some of the skills acquired through this program are helpful to individual growth. Some of the returns of this program are outlined below. First, the step-by-step initiative to introduce the second language into the system ensures that student coop with the changing environment. Therefore, the immersion process does not increase work load on individuals. Giving a lot of work to student increases the level of stress. Therefore, this system does not jeopardize on other programs set for student during their early years at school. The purpose of this program is to reinforce the tutoring efforts by instructors hence lead to the attainment of good results. Some programs such as structures English immersion can be integrated into the system upon evaluation of the student capability to comprehend English content. The instruction program dwells much on grammar, punctuation, and vocabulary and sentence structure. Thus, pupils develop an inherent passion that is driven by the need to pursue and acquire knowledge. Furthermore, transitional bilingual education may be run consecutively with the program. Teachers will present content and lessons in native words to student. Second, native speakers get involved in this exercise. They sharpen up their skills in native language as well as the second language. Thus, it is a two-way educational program that is inclusive. Students will therefore help each other in their education.
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
This is the most effective assessment program that is available for English instructors. It aims at determining the level of speaking and listening, vocabulary, reading and writing and punctuation and grammar. It offers a green light to instructors on the action to take in order to make student understand and work out some of the challenges that they may be facing. The learning endeavor presents some challenges to English language students. This assessment intends to weight learner’s cognitive development and the functionality of the brain. The evaluation takes place through a process. First, the instructor prepares some tests for the student. This exam differs from one level to the other. This is because students at different levels exhibit diverse cognition development. In addition, the emotional and social health of the individual are brought out during the assessment. Some of these factors affect performance in the classroom as well as in other areas of education. The best candidates to conduct this process are the resource teacher: learning and behavioral (RTLBs). Second, the endeavor facilitates the identification of different learning, emotional, social and special needs exhibited by the student. The organization/school will develop program that addresses the specific needs of the students (Brown & Bown, 2014). Gathering the basic information about an individual family and other experiences will help come up with a system that suit individual needs. Confidence is also an aspect that is assessed through this technique. This can be done by observing and listening to a student when he or she is speaking. The end result is assessing the level of spoken and written texts. The gap realized in these processes help instructors improve on their delivery process.
This assessment is best suited for the education program in place because of the following reasons. First, the assessment deals with a number of factors that influences the results and performance at school as well as at home. Thus, it looks at the education program as a whole. This gives an insight into what could be ailing an individual cognitive and commitment to learning. To do this, the examiner focuses on the family issues. They are discussed and evaluated at length to come up with a formidable solution. Many things such as family values, physical deformity, and learning status may affect a student. The levels of understanding in human beings differ from one individual to the other. Some student will be categorized as slow learners while other as quick learners. Slow learners are required to practice a lot while at the same time spend longer time reading and writing. This means that different strategies will be utilized in helping student attain their goals at school. Instructors are expected to spend more time with slow learners as they give instructions compared to quick learners. Moreover, family relationships also affect student’s concentration and commitment. If a student comes from a hostile family environment, he or she is deemed to register low grades. According to Lessow-Hurley, successful learning endeavor is determined by many factors that emanate from internal and external environment. The internal factors include confidence and emotional control. Confidence is built through a process characterized by success. In case of failure, a person loss hopes and need encouragement to do well at school. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries in the world that experiences low education turnover (Lessow-Hurley, 2009).
Culture has also contributed a lot to the poor performance of education in this country. Girls were treated with discrimination and would attend to household’s chores. This kept them away from schools hence unable to attain their educational goals. Furthermore, the society encouraged reservation especially towards globalization and development. This would see the nation sink deep into poverty despite having the potential to rise to prosperity. However, the situation has slowly changed as more girls are enrolling into education while English language learners are increasing in numbers. Illiteracy level is also going down an action that is beneficial to the country. A learned society is more industrious compared to an illiterate society. Education opens up opportunities for individual both locally and internationally. Innovative and inventions endeavors are also possible with the implementation of the right programs. Thus, instructors look at these factors and evaluate them to make a recommendation (Sebba, 2014).
Lastly, physical disabilities on the other hand denote the inability to progress at the same speed with other students in a classroom environment. This calls for remedial classes or special attention towards overcoming the disability or challenge faced by a student. Therefore, the special tests are provided to students will help separate special cases from normal challenges. This is a positive move towards the millennium goals of education. Children growing under a bilingualism environment portray high level of understanding and corporation. Communication skills also improves as a student needs are catered for through the provision of appropriate programs. The introducing and teaching of English differs from one institution to the other since environmental factors are different.
This assessment stands out of the rest in the sense that it is an inclusive technique. The following advantages are derived from participation in this process. The first advantage is that teachers will change their teaching practice and mode according to the rising needs of the students. Thus, different strategies will be utilized by teachers to ensures that student attain success in their endeavors. Arabic language among the first three languages widely used in the world. The population that speaks Arabic ranges from 210 to 290 million people. Introducing and teaching English language to this population helps improve business activities in the region.
In conclusion, Societal Bilingualism affects economic development for individuals as well as the entire community. Students and citizens will be able to mix with the rest of the world having leant English. Some of the drawbacks that English second learners face can be dealt with through assessment. This assessment is determined at uncovering the factors and forces that hinders efficiency of a learning experience. The society must also support some of these initiatives that the government is determined to see through. This is because they are the main beneficiary of government actions and investment in the education sector. Saudi Arabia is considered to be a bilingual society. Quite a good number of residents speak and write English. Therefore, national publication such as the English-language newspapers gives an opportunity to bilingual speakers to access the local news in English. For Arabic counterparts, the newspaper is translated to Arabic hence reaching to a lot of people. Thus, the society should intensify its adoption for the initiative.
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