ATP hydrolysis is the reaction by which chemical energy that has been stored and transported in the high-energy phosphoanhydridic bonds in ATP is released. For instance, in the muscle to produce work. The product is adenosine diphosphate and an inorganic phosphate, orthophosphate. ADP can be further hydrolyzed to produce energy, AMP and another orthophosphate. In a sense, ATP hydrolysis is the final connection between the energy derived from food or sunlight and it aids in muscle contraction, biosynthetic processes essential in life maintenance.
ATP hydrolysis is the primary method that the human body uses to chemically release energy to the muscles and the systems of the body for life sustainability purposes. The amount of energy released by ATP hydrolysis can vary exceptionally depending on factors such as acidic level of blood, pH and the presence of magnesium, which binds to the byproducts of the reaction. Due to the fact that conversion of ATP to ADP can lower the pH levels in the blood, it is also known to lead to lactic acidosis. This is a condition where reduced oxygen levels in the blood can result in shortness of breath or abdominal pain among many other side effects.
For ATP hydrolysis to take place, water is one of the key requirements. Water is not usually constituted in the energy formulas that explain ATP hydrolysis basically because it is a neutral medium to the final energy result. The release of exothermic energy by ATP hydrolysis can produce ionic compounds of water like the hydroxyl ion OH. In a sense, the breakage of ATP is a hydrolysis reaction that is promoted by water, whereby a water molecule is later eliminated.
Following hydrolysis, the phosphate group then reacts with water and forms orthophosphate [receiving the –OH group].the remaining H, from the water molecule then takes place of the liberated phosphate and ADP is formed. There are other key factors that lead to more release of energy and they include;
- Eradicating one of the phosphate groups is energetically favorable because there is a large electrostatic repulsion between the phosphate groups in the ATP as they are close together and have a number of negative charges on the oxygen.
- The entropy of the system is improved by the spontaneous chemical reactions. Reactions whose products are more disorganized than the reagents will tend to occur more easily. Hence, ATP hydrolysis increases because of disorganization of the systems as they start with one simple piece and end up with two systems.
- Chemical reactions also aid in production of highly stable products. The orthophosphate group produced from hydrolysis of ATP is highly stable as it presents numerous resonance structures.
ATP hydrolysis is significant for healthy cellular reaction and function. ATP is used for many cells function that include transport work, moving substance across the cell membrane. It also aids in mechanical work supplying the energy needed for muscle contraction. It also aids in many processes such as beta oxidation, anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis and glycolysis to name but a few. ATP hydrolysis is ab energy generating process in the body. Cells in the body aid generate ATP via the use of proteins and the oxidation of an enzyme, Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide [NADH] derived from vitamin niacin.
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