Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
The central dogma of molecular biology is a term used to explain genetic information flow within any biological system. It was stated for the first time in 1956 by Francis Crick then re-stated in 1970 in Nature paper.
It deals with detailed residue by residue transfer of sequential information and states such information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid. Central dogma molecular has been described as ‘DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein.
Crick however had misapplied the term ‘dogma’ in error for the simple term his proposal did not have anything to do with the lexicological meaning of the term ‘dogma’. Subsequently, de documented this error later in his autobiography.
The dogma is a framework used for the understanding transfer sequence of information between sequential information carrying biopolymers in the most general and common sense, in living organisms. There are three classes of biopolymers and they include RNA and DNA (both nucleic acids) and protein.
There exists 3×3=9 imaginable direct information transfers can arise between these. The central dogma of molecular biology classes these into three groups of 3:3 genera transfers which are believed to naturally occur in cells and three unknown transfers which are believed never to occur. These general transfers are used to describe normal biological information flow which includes:
- DNA replication( this means DNA can be copied to DNA)
- DNA information that can be copied to mRNA (transcription)
- Proteins are synthesized through use of information in mRNA as template (translation)
Ideally, the relationship between RNA and DNA is what is known as the central dogma of molecular biology.
DNA makes RNA makes protein
In this process, the DNA sequences get transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). Messenger RNA then gets translated to specify sequence of protein. DNA gets replicated when each DNA strand specifies the sequence of its partner making 2 daughter molecules from just one parental double strand molecule.
RNA, DNA and Nucleotide structure
DNA is described as a polymer which refers to a very large molecule that is made up of smaller units of 4 components. Each monomer has a sugar and phosphate component. In DNA the dosyribose is the sugar while in RNA the ribose is the sugar.
In reality, it has become increasingly clear the central dogma of molecular biology concept is not absolutely accurate. This is especially in regard to how it places emphasis on proteins as the major mediator of biological function. This is because we already know eighty percent of human genome is transcribed even though only one percent codes for protein. Current research is more focused on investigating functions of non-coding RNA.
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