There are two Chechen Wars which include the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War.
First Chechen War
Also referred to as War in Chechnya, this was a conflict between the Chechen republic of Ichkeria and Russian Federation and it was fought from 1994 August to 1996 August. After the 1994-1995 initial campaign that culminated in Battle of Grozny Russian forces made the attempt to seize control of mountainous Chechnya area but the guerrilla Chechen warfare set them back so did the flatlands despite the overwhelming manpower enjoyed by Russia as well as air support and weaponry. This led to federal forces demoralization and universal opposition of Russian republic which forced Boris Yeltsin’s government to make a ceasefire declaration and one year later, the peace treaty was signed.
Official Russian military deaths are estimated between three thousand five hundred and seven thousand five hundred. In some instances, it is even estimated to be as high as fourteen thousand people. While no accurate estimate is available for Chechen forces killed, there are estimate that place the numbers at three thousand to more than fifteen thousand deaths.
There are figures that estimate civilians killed at thirty thousand and 100,000 while those injured are placed at more than two hundred thousand. Still, there are over five hundred thousand who were displaced as a result of conflict which left villages and cities throughout the republic in utter ruins. As a result of the conflict, there was increased ethnic cleansing and discrimination of Russian population resulting to their percentage decrease from twenty five percent in 1989 to four percent in 2002.
Second Chechen War
The Russian Federation was responsible for the launch of this war which begun on August 1999. It was a response to Invasion of Dagestan by IIB (Islamic International Brigade). Russian troops on October 1st entered Chechnya and begun a campaign which ended in de facto of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria independence. It also led to the restoration of federal control over its territory. Though it is described as internal conflict within Russian Federation, it attracted a huge number of foreign fighters.
At the start of the campaign, pro-Russian Chechen and Russian military forces came face to face with Chechen separatists in what was open combat seizing Grozny, the Chechen capital. This was after a siege which lasted from the end of 1999 through to February 2000. Russia assumed direct rule over Chechnya in 2000 May. The war was presented as a crusade for fighting terrorism and the ultimate attempt at Chechnya succession from Russian federation by Russian authorities. The fight was the worst of its kind in the area since the 1994-1996 Russian civil wars with Chechnya.
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