Crimean war was fought between October 1853 and February 1856 mainly in Crimean Peninsula. The war was between the Ottoman Turkish, French and British on one side and the Russians. The Sardinia-Piedmont army supported the British, Ottoman and French from the January of 1855. Many historians have attributed this war to various factors.
These include the conflict of the great powers in Middle East as well as the demands by Russia to exercise its protection over Orthodox subjects in Ottoman Sultan. Another factor that the war has been attributed to is the dispute between France and Russia over privileges of Roman Catholic churches and Russian Orthodox in holy places of Palestine.
The Turks stood firmly against Russians with the support of Britain. The Russians occupied Danubian principalities which form the modern Romania in the Russo-Turkish border in the July of 1853. On 23rd September, British Fleets were ordered to the Constantinople in Istanbul. On 4th October, Turks declared their war on the Russians and opened their offensive against Russians in Danubian principalities the same month.
On 3rd January 1854, the French and British fleets entered Black Sea after Turkish squadron destroyed Russian fleet in the Black Sea on the side of the Turkish. This entry was aimed at protecting Turkish transports. On 28th March, France and Britain declared war against Russia. Russia responded by first evacuating the Danubian principalities to ensure satisfaction of Austria and preventing it from entering the war. Austria occupies the principalities in the August of 1854.
Troops of the Allies landed in Crimea in the September of 1854 on Black Sea Northern Shore after which they started a one year siege of Russia fortress of the Sevastopol. The major battle of the war was fought on 20th September at Alma River and Balaklava on 25th October as well as on 5th November at the Inkerman. Sardinia-Piedmont joined the war on 26th January by sending 10,000 troops.
After the French had successfully assaulted the Malakhov which was a strong defense for Russians for three consecutive days, the forts were blown up by the Russians to evacuate Sevastopol. The war was fought in the Baltic Sea and the Caucasus. Russia accepted the terms of a preliminary peace pm 1st February in 1856 when Austria threatened that it would join the war in the Allies’ side.
The final settlement of the war was worked out by Congress in Paris between 25th February and 30thj March. This resulted to a Treaty of Paris that was signed on 30th March 1856. The treaty guaranteed Ottoman Turkey’s integrity while obliging Russia to Surrender the Southern Bessarabia and neutralizing the Black Sea.
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