Sample Essay on Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire took place between 9th January 1792 and 24th July 1918. This is the period that followed the collapse of Ottoman Empire. The period of the decline of the empire started in late 18th century with military modernization in the Ottoman Empire under Selim III. Subsequent deposition also contributed to the dissolution of the empire under Mustafa IV.

During this period, there were revolutions by different ethnic groups. The period is also marked by Treaty of Lausanne and Treaty of Jassy. This revolves and the four wars fought against Russia as well as the severe problems facing the economy of the Empire led to its general disintegration.

Reforms made with an aim of modernizing the Ottoman Empire or the Tanzimat were considered inefficient in catching up with the western world. In the First World War, Ottoman Empire joined Central Powers. The Allies partitioned the empire once the war ended resulting in the rise of Turkish War of Independence. The modern day Republic of Turkey replaced the Ottoman Empire that had existed for six centuries. This was in 1923.

imageThe dissolution of the Ottoman Empire can be attributed to various factors. As of 1800, corruption was rampant in the Ottoman government which made it no longer the first-rate power that it used to be in the past. Selim III tried to initiate widespread reforms in the empire. However, he was killed after being deposed at the Ulema and Janissaries instigation.

Interest of the European powers in the Ottoman Empire known as the Eastern question also contributed to the dissolution of this empire. On realizing that collapse of Ottoman Empire would cause bitter conflict between them, Russia, Prussia, Austria and Britain agreed to preserve Turkey in the Congress of Vienna between 1814 and 1815.

Sultan Mahmud II had the whole Janissary corps killed in 1826 and then initiated the era of reforms with the help of Prussia. At the same time, Balkans started breaking out forming rebellion with an aim of becoming independent. By 1880, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece shook of the rule of Turkey.

France started its Algeria conquest in 1830 and in 1831 Egypt governor, Mohammed Ali seized the control of Syria and Palestine and also sent Army to Anatolia. However, the European powers forced Ali to withdraw. In the meantime, Russia continued to advance towards the Ottoman lands.

The wars that were fought in the century including the Crimean war saw Ottoman Empire lose most of its territories except the area around Constantinople. Turkey entered the First World War supporting Germany and allied victory cost it most of the territories. A provisional government was formed by Mustafa Kemal in 1920 and the Sultanate was eventually abolished in 1922.

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