End Stage Renal Disease
The kidney plays three major roles including the elimination of toxins from the body and prevention of accumulation of these toxic substances from the bloodstream. Besides, they also produce hormones that are responsible for the regulation of other body functions like blood pressure and the production of red blood cells. The kidney controls the levels of minerals or electrolytes and other fluids within the body. Thus, the kidneys play the crucial role and malfunctioning of the organs can lead to mild and even severe impacts on the functionality of the body. Various diseases are linked to the kidneys including the end stage kidney disease, and kidney problems. Numerous studies have been done to establish the causes, effects and treatment of kidney problems.
This paper will study how serious the end stage renal disease is, and the treatment programs of the condition including the implementation of a systematic plan of the end stage renal disease.
Scope of the Problem
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), also called renal or kidney failure and stage, means that the kidneys are no longer operational or unable to sustain their daily functioning. This takes place after a chronic disease that makes it impossible for the kidneys to eliminate chemical wastes and excess water from the body of an individual (Medifocus.com, 2012). The impact of this disease is that there are numerous complications in the body that reduce urination. It should be noted that kidneys which are fully functional remove excess water and mineral salt from the body in the form of urine. With ESRD, the body is not able to remove excess water (uremia), body toxic wastes and mineral salts, and this may impact body swelling (edema) and increased blood pressure. The failure of the kidney can also lead to the production of unbalanced electrolytes like magnesium, sodium and magnesium. Excess or shortage of these minerals may lead to various failures like the retaining of water by tissues, abnormal heart rhythm and change in mental states. Other impacts include the hormonal changes due to lack of production and this may weaken the bones making them to become more fragile. Abnormal production of enzymes can also be experienced, since rennin, which is the enzyme charged with production and regulation of sodium and potassium levels, fails. The abnormality in the functioning of the kidney should be managed through a program aimed at preventing the supply with certain drugs and care. According to statistics, between 1996 and 2007, there were increased cases of patients who initiated the treatment of ESRD in the United States, growing from 32,700 to 48,700. The statistics also show that diabetes is among the causes of ESRD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).
Reasons for a Formal Case Management Program
A formal case management program is a plan that is designed to include the treatment procedures for patients with End Stage Renal Disease. Thus, they are critical since they assist in the identification of the treatment phases and procedures that should be followed during the end stage renal failure. Other reasons why it is importance to put in place a written management plan include the fact that it can help in coordination of the necessary activities of treatment and care for patients suffering from this condition. The plan is of significance since it offers assistance, advice and support in the event of urgent situations. Formal plans comprise of treatment plans and therefore help in making decisions based on the treatment of patients. It is through the plan that case conferences can be held; they include the consultations in relations to the conditions of the patient and service coordination. This involves liaising with other external sources and stakeholders including the care givers and the government health department. Through the plan, those who are involved in care of the ESRD can advocate with the agencies from one hand and clients on the other, in terms of treatments, payments and other social support.
Benefits of Implementing a Systematic Case Management Plan
The implementation of a systematic case management plan on ESRD patients is indispensable since it helps both the patient and other stakeholders like parents, doctors and the government. The management plan is crucial to the care providers since it helps in the management of the condition. This impacts increased survival rate since the plan is aimed at reducing malfunctioning and extension of the problem. This increases the chances of the patient in getting better since diagnosis, treatment and care will not be offered systematically and in a particular order. The dialysis or transplant options can be done early enough in order to avoid death. A well coordinated approach of handling the condition is created and increases the survival rates as well as quality of care. Quality in this case implies that the patient is offered early care and the requirements are put in place for sustainability of life and the condition of the disease. With the availability of the plan, the relationship between the patients and care providers is enhanced through well-timed assistance and cooperation. It is important to note that with a plan; a lot of finances will be used efficiently because only the required tests will be performed to establish the disease.
The Involved Parties in the Case Management Plan
The treatment of End Stage Renal Disease may involve any of the three options that include hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplant. These processes are helpful since they control the blood pressure and keeps proper body chemical balance. Hemodialysis can be used in the event that the kidneys are unable to purify blood from the toxins and it is used for cleaning and filtering the blood to eliminate any extra body toxins and salts. It uses a dialyzer that is connected to a machine and the blood flows through the dialyzer, thereby filtering it. Peritoneal dialysis applies the peritoneal membrane, a lining of the abdomen to remove extra water and excess salts. Despite the important function of dialysis, the cure and transplantation are not the only ones for this health condition. The nursing department also plays a critical role since it is responsible for helping in conducting the necessary procedures authorized by the physician. The nurses are always available to assist the patients with ESRD; this means that they should implement the plan depending on past experiences and exposure, since they are likely to involve important elements in the program.
The systematic case management plan contains all parties that are involved in treating patients with End Stage Renal Disease, as well as those who research on the causes of and treatment for the condition. They include doctors coordinating the dialysis and those who are responsible for the nurses. The kidney researchers, scientists and pharmacists should also be part of the plan. Others also include the next of kin to the patient and other hospital personnel.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease Attributed to Diabetes among Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes – United States and Puerto Rico, 1996-2007. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 59(42), 1361-1366.
Medifocus. Com, Inc. (2012). Medifocus Guidebook On: End-Stage Renal Disease. Medifocus_com Inc.