Cellular respiration is a process whereby the chemical energy of food molecules is released and then captured in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate [ATP]. Respiration is the key way through which a cell gains essential energy to fuel any cellular activity in the body. Fats, proteins and carbohydrates are the key foods used as fuel in cellular respiration. However, glucose is used to examine the reaction and the pathways involved in the process.
This is a process that provides the energy that cells need for the metabolic processes like synthesizing of proteins and building of microtubules to maintain cell structure to take place. There are two biologically acknowledged types of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration is a type of respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate Adenosine Triphosphate.
It is a method that involves use of pyruvate [an organic acid that has a carboxylic acid and a ketone] breakdown in glycolysis and the pyruvate enters into the mitochondrion in order to entirely be oxidized by the Krebs cycle. The core products of this process are carbon dioxide and water. Anaerobic respiration is the other known type of cellular respiration.it is a process used by some microorganism whereby neither oxygen nor fermentation is the final acceptor. An inorganic acceptor like nitrate or sulfate is utilized.
While looking at cellular respiration, it is also wise to look at fermentation. This is a process whereby pyruvic acid is not metabolized by the cellular respiration process because of inadequate oxygen. Here, the pyruvate is not released into the mitochondrion, but remains in the cytoplasm, where it is then converted into waste products that may be extracted from the cells. The cellular respiration process is essential for production of more energy essential for the body processes to run appropriately. There are notable factors that affect the cellular respiration process and they include;
Amount of nutrients
The larger amount of nutrients in the food, will determine the amount of energy to be released. These substantial nutrients include fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Amino acids and fatty acids are also essential for the process to be effective. The carbohydrates are converted into glucose, the fats go through the citric acid cycle and then proteins break down and go through a process called glycolysis. The amount of energy produced will depend on the diet of the person. Hence, it is wise to go for foods reach in these nutrients.
The rate of cellular respiration will also depend on the temperature of the environment. The rate of respiration is quicker when the temperatures are warmer and slower when the temperatures are lower. People who live in warmer areas find it easy to restore their energy as long as there are nutrients available to convert in the body. This is easy because there are enzymes present to accelerate the cellular respiration process.
2. State of the cell
Working cells such as roots or neurons of the human hair have higher cellular respiration rate as compared to the dormant cells like seeds. Working cells can store extra energy in the body whereas dormant cells remain non-motile. Therefore, plant cells do not store much energy as compared to human cells.
Cellular respiration process in human beings and animals is different from the cellular respiration in plants. Therefore, without the cellular respiration process, life would cease to exist in humans, animals and plants.
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