Sample Essay on Fibronectin Binding Protein A
Fibronectin binding protein A [FnBPA] is a staphylococcus aureus [Gram-positive coccal bacterium found in the human respiratory tract and on the skin] MSCRAMM cell surface-bound protein that binds to both the fibronectin and fibrinogen. It is an adhesin [cell-surface component of bacterial that allows adhesion to other cells] that makes it easy for staphylococcus aureus [S. aureus] to adhere to host cells of another living organism and an invasion enabling its internalization into these cells. This happens over different types of cells.
Fibronectin binding protein A is capable of providing this invasive property on its own without requirement of co-receptors. This is not exceptional when it comes to FnBP coated beads as they also become internalized into cells. Staphylococcus aureus is able to bind to host cells in the absence of the Fibronectin binding protein A, however; its adherence and invasive properties are much reduced.
The FnBP inserts into the cell wall of staphylococcus aureus by means of a C-terminal LPXTG anchor. Two fibronectin binding domains have been recognized- one is present in the C- terminal D repeat region and one in the N-terminal A region, and this for the mainstay of the structure of the Fibronectin binding protein A. The Fibronectin binding protein is able to bind fibronectin present in the extracellular matrix.
This glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix binds membrane-spanning proteins such as integrins, fibrin, collagen and syndecans. This receptor proteins present in the host cells also bind fibronectin to create a link to the actin cytoskeleton and then binds through the Arg-Gly-Asp [RGD] design that is present in fibronectin. Therefore, fibronectin acts as a bridge between the staphylococcus aureus and the host cell and makes it easy for both host cell and S. aureus to bind at the end of the protein molecule and enable adherence. Fibronectin binding protein A [FnBPA] has a number of clinical significances. They include;
- The FnBP is extensively involved in adherence to a wide variety of mammalian cells and it is associated with many infections. For instance, Fibronectin binding protein A [FnBPA] is essential for in vitro and in vivo infections. The staphylococcus aureus pathogen also causes infections such as endocarditis, pneumonia, sepsis and osteomyelitis among others.
- FnBPA also acts as a virulence factor in staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. The virulence factor is a molecule secreted by pathogens and makes it easy to colonize the host cells, evades the host immune system or response, inhibits host immune response and obtains nutrition from the host cells.
- The fibronectin found in FnBPA also aids in wound healing. It impacts the formation of proper substratum for growth and migration of cells during development and organization of granulation tissue and remodeling of the connective tissue matrix.
Fibronectin binding protein A easily activates the surface of integrins or any other extracellular matrix components like fibrin and collagen. This is because the cluster of the FnBPAs can easily organize these extracellular components. For this reason, the S. aureus is easily and properly internalized and ingested by phagocytes resulting to exceptionally strong inflammatory responses.
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