Instrumental value is also known as extrinsic value or contributory value and refers to the value of objects both abstract and physical objects not as ends in themselves but rather as the means to achieving something else.
Instrumental values also refer to those values that are important towards helping us get our desired ends. Such values are useful because they are the most acceptable ways of behaving. Instrumental values help moderate how we go about the process of setting and achieving goals by ensuring that we do so in ways that are socially acceptable only.
It is deemed that instrumental values have evolved as such they are the most reliable and best values for creating societies that are successful. Values like selfishness and dishonesty destroy societies and especially in evolutionary light they are not proper for the future of mankind. Ethic good with instrumental value can be regarded as an ethic mean and not necessarily as an end in itself.
Instrumental value can be directly valuable or less or more indirectly valuable. For example in the hedonist perspective with pleasure as an end in itself, then music would be regarded as something that can be directly instrumentally valuable by generating pleasure. On the other hand, a guitar can be regarded as something indirectly instrumentally valuable as it generates end in itself in the form of music and it is also an end in itself as it generates pleasure.
From a general stand point of view, regardless of what is considered to have intrinsic value, instrumental values can be graded differently. In this respect, the first instrumental grade is direct value while the second is the degree something generates etc until the infinite grade of that instrumental value.
The universe can be regarded as a chain of events of objects that can possibly generate an end in itself. More than one thing has the ability of generating something of the next value grade-both a piano and guitar can generate music.
There can also be both negative and positive value regarding instrumental value. Any object with positive value can be termed as a positive mean or in some cases, a posmean. An object that has a negative value on the other hand can be termed as a negmean or negative mean.
A posmean is therefore defined as something that indirectly or directly generates a posend while a negmean is defined as something that indirectly or directly generates a negend. Generally though, there is no object that has less or more negative or positive instrumental value.
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