Sample Essay on Insulin Receptor
Insulin receptor is a cell surface receptor that is activated by insulin, insulin-like growth factor I [IGF-1] and insulin-like growth factor II [IGF-2] and originates from the vast class of tyrosine kinase receptors [high-affinity cell surface receptors for polypeptide]. Biochemically, the insulin receptor is programmed by a single gene INSR from which alternate splicing during transcription result in either IR-A or IR-B isoforms [different form of the same protein]. Insulin receptors also play great roles in living organisms.
Insulin receptor is a member of the ligand-activated receptor and the tyrosine kinase family that aid in signaling proteins that collectively and essential in cell differentiation, metabolism and growth. The insulin receptor is unique from other members of the receptor family. It has distinctive physiological and biochemical properties that distinguish it from other members. This difference can be depicted in how each of the members of the receptors family performs their roles. For instance, the main physiological role of the insulin receptor is metabolic regulation while the tyrosine kinases receptors engage in regulating cell growth or cell differentiation.
Receptor tyrosine kinases are allosterically regulated by their cognate ligands and work as dimers. When it comes to insulin receptor, it is covalently maintained as useful dimers by disulfide bonds. Insulin receptor phosphorylates a large substrate protein that sequentially engages effector molecules, a role that many other receptors do not perform or perfect. The chemistry of insulin is well categorized due to the therapeutic interventions in diabetes using the core insulin byproducts.
Insulin receptors have exceptional biological significances. For all the tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptors arbitrate their activities by causing the addition of a phosphate group to particular tyrosines on certain large proteins within the cell. Insulin receptor phosphorylates protein called the Insulin receptor substrate 1[IRS-1]. Insulin receptor substrate 1 binding and phosphorylation lead to increase in high affinity glucose transporter [Glut4] molecules on the outer membrane of muscle cells and adipose tissue. This means that there is an increase in glucose uptake from blood by these tissues.
The core function of insulin receptor is to induce glucose uptake and this means that if there is a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, this complication will lead to diabetes mellitus type 2. When the cells are unable to take right amount of glucose, it will result to an increase in circulating glucose in the blood [Hyperglycemia]. For individuals with insulin resistance, they are likely to display acanthosis nigricans.
Other disorders likely to affect many people with ineffective insulin performance include Donohue syndrome and autosomal recessive disorder to name but a few. Activated Insulin receptor substrate 1 is quite essential when it comes to gene expression. It acts as secondary messenger with the cells to fuel the transcription of insulin-regulated genes. The insulin receptors also aid in glycogen synthesis and this possible through the Insulin receptor substrate-1.
Whenever an insulin molecule is cut into the receptor and stimulates its action, there is a highly likelihood that it will be released back into the extracellular environment or get degraded by the body cells. For degradation to take place, endocytosis of the insulin-receptor takes place followed by the catalyzing action of the insulin degrading enzyme. Liver cells have a upper hand in the degrading process of insulin molecules.
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