Sample Essay on Media Coverage

Media Coverage

Introduction

Communication is a system of relaying information from the source to the recipient usually through a medium. Whichever the mode of communication one decides to use in communication, effective communication is the prime requirement for an appropriate response.  The best response/ reaction are attained only when the contents of the message are clear to the recipient. Effective communication involves the dispatch of clear contents of the subject to be communicated (Campbell & Pennebaker, 2003). Communication practices are used in different sectors of the society. Communication forms the basic component of effective and efficient management and administration. An increasing body of literature has continued to shed much light into the aspect of effective communication. Among these is Richard Campbell, Christopher Martin, Bettina Fabos’s book ‘Media Essentials: A Brief Introduction’ who have provided an elaborate methodology for conducting the analysis of various topics presented in any form of communication.

The trio has focused much on media analysis and literacy. They define media as an understanding of the mass communication process through the development of critical-thinking tools – description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, engagement. The steps described by the trio have been used widely in communication and media analysis. In this paper, I have used Richard Campbell, Christopher Martin and Bettina Fabos’ book ‘Media Essentials: A Brief Introduction’ to provide an analysis of five case studies on different topics. The case studies used in this paper are derived from various sources reported by famous media houses in America and around the globe. The case studies used herein, focus on a wide array of issues famously quoted among various media houses and communities from around the globe. I have effectively used the five steps used in media analysis described by Richard Campbell, Christopher Martin, and Bettina Fabos to provide an in- depth analysis of the case studies referred to in the text.

New York Times: Third- Quarter GDP Rose 3.5%, Lifting Hopes for US Economy.  Reported by Patricia Cohen on October 30th, 2014

The article, embedded on page 20 of the New York Times newspaper reported of the increase in US economy brining along with it a glare of smile on the faces of many Americans and the entire world. She reports that the improvements in the American economy facilitated business growth and income earnings among the indigenous as well as foreigners. A picture of a smiling cloth vendor is a signifying symbol of this happiness and irrevocable gain. The last quarter of the last year ended 2014 that is September, October, November and December same year was marked by a handsome increase of up to 3.5% in the county’s economy. The report asserts that many forecasters have projected that the increase can be maintained over the coming years and expects a remarkable growth in the US economy compared to the past.

According to the report, many economic forecasters have lost their skeptics about the increases and have a resounded agreement to advancements of the economy in the next coming years. Prominent economic observers such as John Canally, the chief economic strategist working for the LPL Financial and Mr. Tannenbaum, a famous economic analyst in the region, have all issued positive comments on the economy’s growth over the next few years. However, the report goes not without mention of the skeptics who have argued based on increased consumer spending that had grown up from 1.5 to 1.8 percent in the same period being a threat to economic growth in the region. According to them, the American economy is not likely to grow as long as consumer spending continues to increase.

Campbell, Martin, and Fabos’ media analysis procedure can be successfully applied in this section to analyze the report given above. The procedure, following a five thronged step analysts employ in coming up with a deeper understanding of the underlying issues can help us shed more light to the issues raised in this report. According to the trio the steps: description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, engagement are the steps that analysts can employ to come up with a better understanding of the issues raised in a media article. Description as Curran, (2002) reports includes a vivid illustration of the factors that have contributed to the development of the situation at hand, according to the report above, there are no propelling issues leading to the economic development reported.

In fact, the report notes only that the economy has grown without actually reporting on the factors of growth such as tourism, industrial development, oil and minerals earnings and their sustainability within the quoted period. According to Dressing, pehl, & Verbi, (2004) this is a deficiency as the report is expected to note the factors of growth upon which the recipients would peg their arguments. Because of this notable miss out, skeptics are able to challenge the validity of the contents communicated. Frey, Botan, & Kreps, (2000) notes that the media content relayed to the public should be well organized, described, and based on reliable foundations that make it practically convincing to the public. The content reported must be suitably analyzed and evaluated before dispatched to the public so that it is conclusive for interpretation. The report described above leaves out many questions to justify the sustainability of the claims above. According to Richard, Christopher, & Bettina, (2012) economic growths cannot be projected by observing the stock or exchange market but by closely analyzing the sustainability in the growth of key contributors to the development of a region. This has not been mentioned, a clear indication that the claims raised are deficient of facts and so do not meet the media standards as per the requirements of Richard, Christopher, & Bettina, (2012).

The Greenwich Magazine: On the horizon: A virtual Economy. Reported by Moffly Media on November 2014.

This abstract is a monthly report provided the Moffly Media. The report is based upon an elaborated interview with on the best economists in the region, Bitcoin. The interview, conducted by Ian Treibick gives an illustrative argument built upon justified facts about the state of the American economy. Basing his arguments on a keen observation of the performance of the major contributors to the growth of the American economy, Mr. Bitcoin gives the pros and cons of over-belief and overconfidence in the growth of the economy especially in the coming future. In particular, he notes of the consumption patterns against the prime indicators in the region including the oil and gas industry, the transport sector, which has had its falls and rises, tourism among others.

The interviewee, Mr. Bitcoin goes into details to illustrate an estimated level of contribution each economic factor steers into the economy as recommended in the works of Gauntlett, (2002), Hijams, (1996) and Hansen, Cottle, Negrine, & Newbold, (1998). He pegs his arguments on a long-term observation on the performance of these indicators from the time after the great economic recession to present. In particular, Bitcoin gives an allowance for the lack of absoluteness in his statements and observations noting that economic performances are determined by a number of factors, most of which are external to the party in question. It is for this reason that he notes that, in lieu the expected uncertainties in the growth of American economy in the coming future, other factors, external to the region, can play an abrupt change in the state of the economy thereby changing the entire game. Based on the active play of these external factors, therefore, it becomes difficult to substantiate the extent of growth in a region’s economy at least a sustained future.

The report provided herein, gives a conclusive illustration of the past occurrences, to justify the present and reflect on the future predictions. It gives a clear description of the events that have led to positive economic growth for the region over a remarkable period of time, since the great recession period. It is worth noting the difference brought in by this report compared to the previous report described in this section. All factors contributing to the economic growth and their sustainability patterns have been fairly predicted to give a conclusive argument on the state of the matter. Vivid descriptions provided herein gives adequate information to the reader/ consumer of the message relayed therein. It is possible at this stage for the public to notice the true picture of the events that have unfolded to make the current position viable. It is upon this conclusive analysis that the readers are able to guarantee an accurate prediction of the future occurrences as described by Campbell, Martin and Fabos. According to Lombard, Synder-Duch, & Bracken, (2003) the media content can be well convincing if its content is justifiable on the basis of the evaluations conducted. The article has as well provided a rather accurate evaluation of the economic factors resulting to the noted growth. When arranged before the consumers, the media content described above provides detailed and powerfully convincing statements upon which the public can envision resourceful information based on firmly researched foundation.

The Wall Street Journal: Real Time Economics: U. S. Gas Pries to Fall Below $3 a Gallon this Weekend– Reported by Ben Leubsdorf on October 31st 2014

The report provides a brief illustration on the fall of gas prices in the US states since 2010 culminating into a remarkable fall in the week of reporting. The fall, according to the report, is fueled by considerable growth of the American economy since 2010. The oil and gas industry, according to Lombard, Snyder-Duch, & Bracken, (2004) contributes a very significant share of American income. The boom in world oil prices as the report illustrates led to the notable growth in American economy consequently, through complex procedures, led to the fall in gas prices in the region as inflation rates fall below the usual margin. Besides, the report also touches on consumer spending which, in the views of the reporter, will considerably lead to the price hike on gas prices. It weighs the two related sides of the coin which determines the growth patterns in the economy. A conclusive remark on the observations records that although price falls are expected over a short period, this may not be sustainable since increasing consumer spending is a renowned threat to American economic growth.

Like the first report, it is hard for the general public which is the expected audients to discern the validity of the statements raised in this report. The report makes mere mentioning of facts without actually driving the justifications upon which the facts are built. Even though the descriptions are made on a long-term basis considering a monitoring effect on gas prices within the region in a five year period, it does not give the reasons behind this consistent fall as well as the sustainability of the fall. It, therefore, becomes very difficult for the audients to derive a belief in the contents described. There is no effective evaluation of the facts raised in the report making it deficient of a powerful convince (Macnamara, 2004). Mayring, (2000) has made an illustrative observation on the ability of media content to convince the general public on the observable facts. According to his observations, the evaluation process is the most important factor that must be keenly observed by media analysts in delivering the content of their information. It is the evaluation stage that provides the insights upon which various arguments have been developed. Justification of the statements raised in the report cannot be adequately made based on the junk of information provided above. Hanging facts that lack effective evaluation lack convincing power as described by Campbell, Martin and Fabos

The Wall Street Journal: Adidas CEO Must Decide How to Pivot on Reebok. Reported by Ellen Emmerentze Jervell

The report titled above has provided a commentary illustration of the need for Adidas to capitalize her business on Reebok disposal to investors from Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi. According to the report, the poor performance of the sneaker making company products could be received by overwhelming joy given it noted fall in the global market in the last decade. The disposal amount received from the sales of the Reebok Company, owned by Adidas could be used to revamp the company’s investments in other forms of business and recreate her image in the global sphere.

A vivid description of the steps required to revamp the economic income through the sales reported in the article are as well lacking just as in the past reports discussed in this paper. Besides, the report fails to illustrate by evaluating the performance of Adidas Company over the past years. The problems that led to the fall in Reebok may not have been financial but stemmed from other factors such as poor management or market factors or even from stiff competition from other companies venturing into the same business (Neuendorf, 2002). It is, therefore, not conclusive enough to conclude that the sales of Reebok would be reciprocal to the growth in Adidas. The descriptions of events that have been discussed in the report are not conclusive in terms of the validity of their assertions. Effective evaluation on the performance of Adidas based on such determining factors has not been provided leaving many gaps unfilled.  The information relayed in this article can, therefore, be deemed baseless and lacking considerable backing to validate the above-mentioned claims (Newbold, Boyd-Barrett, & Van Den Bulck, 2002).

The New York Times: The rise of American economy amidst odds. Reported by The Editorial Board on August 13, 2014.

The article reports on the development of the American economy over the last three years. According to the report, various sectors of the economy such as the oils and mining sector as well as the tourism sector are noted to have significantly contributed to the development of the American economy over the last three years.

The report however does not provide a justification for the evidence collected since it does not mention how much each sector has contributed to the development of the economy. This report, like some of the reports described in this paper, fails to accomplish the requirements described in the step by step analysis of media articles described by Campbell, Martin and Fabos. The evaluation of possible outcomes of various challenges associated with the expansion on the economy regardless of the acute rise in inflation rats in various states within the region. According to Patton, (2002) lack of valid clear analysis and evaluation on major proofs for the evidence presented hence lack of convincing power to the presentation.

Discussion

The reports describe din the cases above presents a wide array of viewpoints concerning the issues being probed. Most media presentations are prone to various subjective and biased ideas that have affected the effective delivery of the intended messages. Martin, Campbell and Fabos describe serious concerns in the development and delivery of the media contents. One needs to take into consideration, as has been witnessed in the stories presented here, the need to ensure reliability by issuing adequate content concerning the facts behind the stories being aired.

Conclusion

To conclude, the aspect of media analysis has attracted the attention of various scholars and media practitioners. Various scholars have argued that the power of media content to adequately convince the public is based on how effective the project has been presented. Effective presentation of media content is based on Campbell, Martin and Fabos analysis that describes a five-fold procedure for effective analysis of any media content. This piece has presented an illustrative analysis of various scenarios using Campbell, Martin and Fabos’ analysis citing the best-presented report as well as pointing out the various flaws in particular reports focused upon.

References

Campbell, R., & Pennebaker, J. (2003). The secret life of pronouns: flexibility in writing style and physical health. Psychological Science, 14 (1), 60–65.

Curran, J. (2002). Media and power. London: Routledge.

Dressing, pehl, G., & Verbi, G. (2004, July). MAXqda. [Computer Software]. Retrieved July 19, 2004, from http://www.winmax.de

Frey, L., Botan, C., & Kreps, G. (2000). Investigating communication: an introduction to research methods (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Gauntlett, D. (2002). Media, gender & identity. London: Routledge.

Hansen, A., Cottle, S., Negrine, R., & Newbold, C. (1998). Mass communication research methods. London: Macmillan.

Hijams, E. (1996). The logic of qualitative media content analysis: a typology. Communications, 21, 93–109.

Lombard, M., Snyder-Duch, J., & Bracken, C. C. (2004, April ). Practical resources for assessing and reporting intercoder reliability in content analysis research projects. Retrieved April 28, 2004, from http://www.temple.edu/mmc/reliability

Lombard, M., Synder-Duch, J., & Bracken, C. C. (2003). Content analysis in mass communication assessment and reporting of intercoder reliability. Human Communication Research, 29, 469–472.

Macnamara, J. (2004, July 30). Mass media effects: a review of 50 years of media effects research. Retrieved July 30, 2004, from http://www.archipelagopress.com/jimmacnamara

Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken (7th ed.). Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union.

Neuendorf, K. (2002). The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Newbold, C., Boyd-Barrett, O., & Van Den Bulck, H. (2002). The media book. London: Arnold.

Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Richard, C., Christopher, M., & Bettina, F. (2012). Media Essentials: A Brief Introduction (8th ed.). Boston : Bedford/St. Martin’s.