Ottoman Empire Timeline
The Ottoman Empire was one of the most popular empires that reached out to different parts of the globe including Asia, Africa and Europe. It started in what is now known as Turkey. The primary purpose of the empire was to spread Islamic teachings of its rulers and to gain land. The empire was also known as the longest and continuous dynasty in history characterized with many events that marked the timeline of the empire.
Osman was elected the first of the empire and in 1300 A.D, after he led his troops to displace the Seljuk Turks.
His troops lay siege to Bursa city in northwest of Turkey in 1326 A.D and made it the capital of the empire.
Between 1326 A.D and 1389 A.D, Orah, Osman’s son took over the leadership of the empire following the death of his father. He gained control of Thrace later in 1345 and his son Murad I became the next ruler. As a new leader of the dynasty, he set up a unique system to train all ex slaves into Janissaries or soldiers. However, he died in the battlefield against the Serbians.
In 1400 A.D, there was a win and lose situation in the empire. Bayezid extended the empire to Euphrates River in the east from the Danube River in Bulgaria. As a result, Mongolian raiders crushed his troops in Turkey in 1402 A.D where he was taken prisoner. Bayediz died within the same year and the Empire was split among his sons.
In 1402, Bayezid sons fought for leader with Mehmed emerging a winner in 1413 and reuniting the empire but died in 1421. In 1453, Mehmed II laid siege to Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Bombards and siege guns were used for eight weeks that saw heavy fighting in the capital. Byzantine was defeated and the emperor, Constantine XI died in the battle. The city is popularly known as Istanbul today.
Between 1453 and 1481 A.D, Mehmed II ruled for 30 years and the city of Istanbul became the economic, cultural and political center of the empire. Ottoman culture flourished during the period as bazaars, roads, inns, baths and Mosques were built. A special tax was also introduced charging all non-muslim residents.
Between 1520 and 1566 A.D, Suleyman I, a powerful leader in the empire conquered part of southeast Europe and western Asia. This was part of his plan to convert the people of the empire into Islam as it reached its peak under his leadership.
Suleyman I died leading to a slow decline of the empire in 1566 and 1574. His son, Selim II took over him and his government became quite unstable because he never went to war. Turkish fleet smashed in Greece at the Battle of Lepanto.
The empire was slowly threatened between 1606 and 1639 A.D because of poor leadership. The empire fought with the Persians and the Turks captured Crete from Venetians. Ottoman fought a losing battle in 1683 where Austrian troops in 1697 entered the territory in Hungary. Zenta was defeated by Turks.
In 1821, Greece fought against Ottomans with the help of France, Russia and Britain where it gained its independence. There were more losses in 1878, in 1912 A.D Balkan wars erupted taking over European lands from the empire and it was later dissolved in 1923 after signing of peace treaties with Central Powers. This led to establishment of the Republic of Turkey.
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