Privatization: Models and Applications for Private Security
The global maritime industry continues to face challenges due to the ever-increasing threats in the high seas. The threats have made sea vessels and maritime organizations to partner with maritime security agencies in order to protect their vessels and goods while in the waters. These security agencies, mainly from the private sector, form part of a justice system that aims to deter and control crime by upholding order through a justice system. They form part of the law enforcement group, which specializes in the maritime sector to combat and fight the global maritime security threat, with maritime security being defined as the security practices involved in the maritime transport system aimed at ensuring safe arrival of cargo without interference by criminal activities (Klein, 2011). This has become an enormous task leading to the establishment of public-private agreements where private security agencies are used within the law enforcement circle to preserve freedom in the seas and facilitate global trade.
The demand for maritime partnership has grown beyond the boundaries, with international bodies such as the International Maritime Organization, privately contracted companies, and armed police performing naval patrols coming on board (National Research Council, 2008). Laws and regulations facilitate their activities; an example is the Ship Security Code aimed at facilitating the security of ships and ports (Walter, 2004).
The association with private maritime security companies will be of importance in protecting the sovereignty of states surrounded by international waters, as well as the sea-using vessels. This private-public partnership will be complemented by various models of maritime security, with each suiting a given scenario as per the objectives, based on the conduction of a risk assessment exercise.
The models of maritime security will include both on-board and shore-side security strategies, to enhance security at the seas and the loading facilities such as the ports. These will include the use of armed and unarmed security personnel at the sites such as the ports, cruise lines, and harbored ships at the ports, support services for the coasts as well as anti-piracy, warfare combat personnel, and intelligence service providers (Berube & Cullen, 2012). The armed and unarmed port security personnel will facilitate the security that caters for pre-arrival and departure of ships, as well as managing the security parameters around the buildings (McNicholas, 2008).
Another component will be the use of armed and unarmed security personnel onboard ships to provide security services in ships that are in the international waters. They will provide preventive strategies, as well as mitigate any attack aimed at the vessels. The use of warfare combat personnel will be used in scenarios where there is an imminent attack, where they will be used to protect the ship against terror or piracy attempts by engaging in live missions with criminals. Apart from these, the intelligence team will be used to carry out risk analysis based on intelligence reports to ensure that the naval route will facilitate smooth maritime transport.
There have been both regional and international initiatives to strengthen maritime security, with various member countries playing a useful role in supporting maritime security. These have led to the sharing of information, such as radar and satellite information, with the main aim being to reduce vulnerabilities in the maritime industry.
The adoption and application of these models of private security will significantly reduce instances of threats and attacks while vessels are on international waters.
Berube, C. G., & Cullen, P. (2012). Maritime private security: Market responses to piracy, terrorism and waterborne security risks in the 21st century. London: Routledge.
Klein, N. (2011). Maritime security and the law of the sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McNicholas, M. (2008). Maritime security: An introduction. Burlington, MA: Academic.
National Research Council (U.S.). (2008). Maritime security partnerships. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Walter, C. (2004). Terrorism as a challenge for national and international law: Security versus liberty?. Berlin: Springer.