Sample Essay on Public policy paper

Public policy paper

  • The public policy and the agenda setting

The policy to be discussed in the essay is ‘Garbage collection in the Latin America’. The tremendous increase in population in the Latin America has led to increase in garbage to several tones a day. The increase in population is as a result of large number of immigrants and high rates of births in the marginalized community in the region (Chaudhry and Gary 23). Increase in population is directly proportional to the waste products in any urban or rural setting, which may result due to lack of employment in the formal sectors since the government cannot accommodate all the jobless people. This necessitated the government to implement the policy. To earn their living , a good number of these immigrants have come up with the idea of forming groups that would otherwise assist in city clean ups and in return they carry something home to make ends meet. The policy has brought a lot of environmental benefits, welfare improvement of local governments as well as the community at large. However, these people are still faced by numerous challenges, which include marginalization, poverty, low income and low productivity even with attempts to get jobs for themselves using the new policy. They have tried to curb these challenges by merging into particular business partnerships and cooperatives involving cleaning activities in the region with the aim of creating special attention to their social needs. However, they have asked the government to improve their working conditions by providing them with dustcoats and gumboots for better results to the environment and the community as a whole.

Based on the above challenges, this policy paper seeks to address the plight of garbage collectors in the Latin America and explore how they can develop in terms of business since the current model in garbage or waste collection is very narrow in scope and scale. It is also aimed at giving recommendations and strategies on empowerment of these people and the community they live in. This policy paper addresses three key things, which include provision of cooperatives with relevant technology that would allow value adding activities such as sorting, washing and recycling. Provision of better business ideas through management training that would help to strengthen the internal organization of cooperatives and incorporation of the cooperatives into the public and private sector to make them be able to access and acquire high quality materials for their job are the strategies the policy aims at implementing. The above three policy strategies require a lot of input from the government and other external entities such as Development banks and NGOs. Besides, these strategies also need analysis coordination and planning for effective and successful implementation.

The policy was adopted because garbage collection has never been recognized and many people had a negative perception about it in America to show that all jobs are good (Jackiewicz and Fernando 177). There is still piling up of garbage all round the cities. Having realized the input of these people and having gone through this public policy on waste management, the Latin American government decided therefore to a adopt this policy to eliminate the pilling waste and maintain cleanliness. The policy was going to create jobs to the marginalized people and the immigrants who form the bulk of the Latin American population. This policy through its analysis is seen to be one of the policies, which have created solutions in regard to poverty. Again, most of these immigrants were found to be staying close to the dumping site, they had no alternative but just to engage in this business for the betterment of their life.

  • Implementation of the policy and its target group

This policy was implemented by the Latin America in a number of ways. For instance in Brazil, the government has provided several compactors, conveyer belt, tractors and shredders to be used in door to door garbage collection (Das 5). Cooperatives have also been provided with big open warehouses that help to effectively carryout their daily activities. Through the support given by the government, the cooperatives have also been given a special place to locate their businesses. By legalizing waste picking as a formal activity, the cooperatives have also come up with fully furnished cheap dust bins for people to dispose their wastes into both at homes and in streets. There has also been public awareness campaigns, a role that is played by the government as well as the media in the implementation of this policy (Lieten 40). This has made many people beware of the policy and thus have followed the provide ways of disposing their waste. The policy was targeted mainly for the citizens.

  • Contexts that drive the public policy

The government has come up with integral mechanisms to support  cooperatives and municipalities as well as formal workers in the system of solid wastes management. The government of Colombia  through its constitutional court ruled in favor of garbage collectors  that it would  grant them  opportunities to access, sort and recycle reclaimable materials. By this adoption, the garbage collectors have been able to improve on their standard of living making them strongly feel as if they are part and parcel of the society. The court also has recognized the importance of garbage collectors by giving them full protection. In general, the Latin America has approved legislation empowering garbage collectors.

  • Examination of the public policy making process and the effect of the policy

This policy making process passed through a number of steps before presentation and enactment. These processes included; identification of the current policy, which for this case did not allow garbage collection to be conducted by just ordinary people. The second step was to come up with reasons to initiate changes on the current policy which was categorizing the waste picking as a very odd job which is just done with less fortunate people in the society. The third step was to analyze the policy options to be considered, weather there was more than one option or not. There was also pro and post critical analysis of each option. The next step involved recommending the right course of action. This involved incorporating various governmental and non governmental entities; in the policy making process and its implementation. The final step was to come up with the reasons of identifying the right course of action, which was legalization and financing various cooperatives formed in the name of waste or garbage management. These steps aimed at coming up with a conclusive policy that would be adopted and implemented (Huber et al 59). The process was successful as it was bias free, thus democracy was followed.

  • Effect of the policy and recommendations to improve it

The effect of this public policy to the cooperatives is that now they can enjoy different degrees of partnership with their respective municipalities a mid to boost their livelihood in terms of financial aid and their well-being. The cooperatives also enjoy full support from the government, which had never been there before. Implementing this policy has also allowed the groups to access funding from various governmental and non governmental institutions since it is now a fully recognized activity in the society by the government (Myers and Henry 120).

The impact of this policy is evident in that most of the marginalized groups have come out of just being beggars to most useful and resourceful people in the society (Winchester 20). Legalizing this policy has also improved the hygienic standards of several towns and cities within the Latin America. This policy recommends that for efficient discharge of duties by these cooperatives, the people should come up with a stronger society that can solve their financial problems and maximum eradication poverty among them by taking care of the environment. The policy also recommended involvement of various cooperate firms such as banks and NGOs, which would otherwise offer a strong and adequate financial support (De 91). The last recommendation is to create a proper link between public and private sectors. For instance, have at least one partnership with municipality and several with various businesses. This strategy requires a well established cooperative which has access to various machineries. For an effective cooperative, they must achieve strength, machinery and vertical integration (Karst and Keith 580).

1.6 Public relations techniques used to promote the policy

Creation of awareness was one of the techniques used in the promotion of this public policy. This was done by integration and incorporation of the cooperative into various functions of the government (Fernandez-Arias et al 246). The government has supported and financed  campaigns that have helped in creating awareness even to the marginalized communities of the need to have the policy in action. The media has not been left behind and have informed people of the importance and the existence if the policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Carruthers, David V. Environmental Justice in Latin America: Problems, Promise, and Practice. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2008. Print.

Chaudhry, Shahid A, and Gary J. Reid. Civil Service Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of a Conference. Washington, DC: World bank, 1994. Print.

Das, Man S. Sociology in Latin America. New Delhi: MD Publications, 1994. Print.

De, Ferranti D. M. Inequality in Latin America: Breaking with History?Washington: World Bank, 2004. Print.

Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo, Rodolfo E. Manuelli, and Juan S. Blyde. Sources of Growth in Latin America: What Is Missing?Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Office of External Relations, 2005. Print.

Huber, Richard M, H J. Ruitenbeek, and Ronaldo S. Motta. Market-based Instruments for Environmental Policymaking in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons from Eleven Countries. Washington, DC: World bank, 1998. Print.

Jackiewicz, Ed, and Fernando J. Bosco. Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012. Print.

Karst, Kenneth L, and Keith S. Rosenn. Law and Development in Latin America: A Case Book. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975. Print.

Lieten, G.K. Hazardous Child Labour in Latin America. Dordrecht [etc.: Springer, 2011. Print.

Myers, David J, and Henry A. Dietz. Capital City Politics in Latin America: Democratization and Empowerment. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 2002. Print.

Winchester, Lucy. Sustainable Human Settlements Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago, Chile: CEPAL, Sustainable Development and Human Settlements Division, 2005. Print.