Many dynasties have graced the world for centuries and others have rose and fell. Qing dynasty holds a deep-rooted history that many historians and scholars rely on up-to-date. Also known as the empire of the Great Qing or the Manchu dynasty, it was the last grand dynastic empire of China. It ruled from 1644 to 1912 and proceeded by the Ming Empire that birthed the Republic of China. The Qing multicultural dynasty formed vast territorial bases for the modern Chinese state and impacted lives of many people.
The Qing dynasty was started by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in northeastern China [the Manchuria]. The Manchu state was formed by Nurhaci after embarking on an inter-tribal vendetta in 1582 and this pushed for a campaign to unite the nearby tribes. By 1616, he had consolidated Jianzhou and proclaimed himself the Khan of the Great Jin in reference to the erstwhile dynasty. To dominate every tribal or militia operations, the Qing made sure that the half of the administration was made up of Manchus.
There were a number of Ming officials and generals who also held different posts in the Ming cities. The idea of having some Ming officials did not go well with the local people as they felt that they were being governed by foreigners. Qing armies got experience from the Ming general and were able to fight against the Ming rebellions. Nurhaci was not able to defeat most of the troops as majority were made up of Mongols, Ming people and others but not native Jurchen, and he died in the battle at the age of 68.
Emperor Shunzhi was named the emperor of the Qing dynasty after his father died and the Qing dynasty began in1644. Together with his court, Shunzhi continued to conquer the surrounding cities and established a new government. It took more than 20 years for the downfall the Ming troops who had great support from the European nations. More Ming leaders were drove away from their territories and the new emperor took control of the cities. Drogon the advisor of the emperor reappointed Ming officials and strengthened the Confucian dynasty examination making it easy to strengthen the empire.
After the death of emperor Shunzhi, Kangxi took over and he served longer than any other emperor in the dynasty. He was a hardworking emperor and started ruling on his own at the age of 15 years. During the emperor Kangxi reign, he was faced by military crises after Wu Sangui who had helped the Qing conquer the empire rebelled against the new emperor. Fortunately, the Qing forces overwhelmed this rebellion. The Russians also invaded some of the Qing dynasty territories in 1680s and a treaty was signed after a number of combats.
Emperor Kangxi’s central decisions were to conquer as many territories as possible. He also wanted to continue the Neo-Confucian organizational system, monopolize the key industries, trade with the western while resisting their expansion and putting Europeans in the court. Under the Qing emperor, the court was more careful and controlled every industry and commerce. Economy improved in most parts of China and population grew tremendously. He also allowed Jesuits into the empire and gave them top positions in the court. With improving technology, better guns and cannons were available for the armies. The Qing dynasty prospered and expanded into many other regions, to later culminate in 1912 after many years of rule.
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