Sino Japanese Wars
Sino Japanese wars refer to the first Sino Japanese war and the Second Sino Japanese war. The first Sino-Japanese war refers to a war that was fought between Meiji Japan and Qing Dynasty in China between 1st August 1894 and 17th April 1895. This was primarily fought over Korea control.
After over 6 months of the Japanese naval forces and the army continued and successful fight, the war led to the loss of Weihai port by the Chinese, the leadership of Qing sought peace with Japan in the February of 1895.
This war acted as a clear indication of failure of the attempts of the Qing Dynasty to modernize the military. It also fed off the threats of the sovereignty of the dynasty especially when compared to the success restoration of Japan after Meiji era. Regional dominance also shifted from the China side to Japan for once. Qing dynasty prestige and classical tradition held by Chinese suffered a blow after the war.
Losing Korea was humiliating to China because it was its vassal state and it led to public outcry that had not been precedent. This defeat was a catalyst in China for political changes and revolutions led by Kang Youwei and Sun Yat-Sen. These trends were later manifested by the revolution of 1911.
In China the first Sino Japanese war is called War of Jiawu. In Japan, it is called the Japan-Qing war. In Korea where the war took place is called Qing-Japan War.
The second Sino Japan war was fought between 7th July 1937 and 9th September 1945. It was a military conflict between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China. China was fighting Japan getting economic support from Germany, the United States and the Soviet Union. This was after Japanese attached the Pearl Harbor in the 1940s.
The second Sino Japanese war merged with the World War II and it became a major front that is commonly called the Pacific War. In the 20th century, the second Sino Japanese war became the largest war in Asia. It also resulted in over 50 percent casualties of the Pacific war fought between 1937 and 1941.
This war resulted from the decades of Japanese imperialism and policies that were aimed at dominating China militarily and politically as well as securing vast reserves of raw materials as well as economic resources especially labor and food. Before the second Sino Japanese war, Japan and China had fought several localized and small engagements called incidents and Japan had scored most victories.
However, this war ended in surrender of Japan after atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and invasion of Manchuria held by Japan by the Soviet Union which forced Japan forces in China to surrender on 9th September 1945.
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