Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests have a variety of variability in terms of precipitation and temperature. In areas where the rainfall is distributed broadly throughout the year, there are deciduous trees that get mixed up with evergreen species. This kind of forest is characterized by species like beech, maple and oak. Structurally, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are characterized by four layers which include:
- A canopy that is composed of full sized mature dominant specifies
- Slightly low later of trees that are mature
- Shrub layer
- Understory layer of herbaceous plants and layer of grasses
The characteristic most dominant broadleaf trees that are found in the northern hemisphere of this biome include maples, oaks and beeches as well as birches. Typical coniferous trees on the other hand include spruces, firs and pines. There are some regions of the biome that have canopy species that are more important than broadleaf species. Within the southern hemisphere, endemic genera like Eucalyptus and Nothofagus are known to occupy the biome.
This type of forest is found in regions that have distinct cool and warm season which can give way to moderate annual average temperatures of 3 to 150C (37 to 600 F). In addition to this, the forests are found in regions that have relatively rainy and warm climates at times, the regions have a distinct dry season. In East Asia, there is a dry season during winter and in summer the Mediterranean climate zones have wet fringe climate.
Other regions have a fair and even distribution of rainfall is also known to host this type of forest. Some of the common species found in temperate broadleaf and mixed forest include lichens and mosses and wild herbs. Some of the tree species include maple, cottonwood, dogwood, redbud, hickory, oak, beech, redbud, sourwood, elm and basswood.
There are also species which are uncommon which include creepers such as poison ivy, wild grape and Virginia creeper. Shrubs which are uncommon in this type of forest include mountain laurel, azaleas, huckleberries and rhododendron.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is also known as mixed forest, a name that is attributed to the fact the coniferous trees are also included in the canopy component of the forests. This type of forest experienced rainfall that is around 24 to 60 inched every year. The best examples of this type of forest include the Himalayan broadleaf forests, Mississippi lowland forests and East Central Texas forests. Some of the plant species that are found in these regions include birch and maple and conifers like firs and pines.
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