Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas and Shrub Lands
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrub lands refer to grassland territorial biome that is located in climate regions that are semi arid to semi humid of subtropical and tropical latitudes. Often, these are large land areas in the tropics and rarely receive enough rainfall that is needed to support widespread tree cover. This region receives rainfall between ninety to one hundred and fifty centimeters per year.
However, it is important to note that this region experienced variability in soil moisture through the year. Grasses are the species that dominate this region though there are also scattered trees which are common. The biodiversity of this habitat is seen in the large mammals that forage the region. Typically, grass and other types of herbaceous plants dominate grasslands, scattered trees dominate the savanna grasslands while herbaceous and woody shrubs dominate shrub lands.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrub lands get rainfall that falls somewhere between five hundred and 1300 millimeters per year which can be seasonal with the entire rainfall of the year occurring within a few weeks. Often, this type of environment is found on all continents except Antarctica. They are especially widespread in Africa and found in most parts of northern parts of SA, South Asia, southern US and Australia.
The African savannas are found in woodland, grassland and forest regions. The climate also varied with the average temperature been 270C with peaks of 300C in the months of April and October while per year, the rainfall is between 300 and 1500 millimeters. Flora in tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrub lands include:
- Grass- It grows quickly to three or four meters in clumps and the shoots die during the dry season leaning the roots only
- Acacia-During the dry season, it loses leaves in order to converse the moisture and during the rainy season, it has leafy canopy which can be flatted by the winds
- Low shrubs-These are small, drought resistant and often comprised of thorns rather than leaves
- Baobab-This tree stores its water in the trunk and has a thick bark that protects it from fires during the dry season. In addition to this, it also has long roots that tap underground moisture and few leaves that reduce the amount of water that is lost as a result of transpiration. A characteristic feature of such regions is an abundance of aggregations most of which are vertebrates that are evenly distributed.
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