Since the 19th century, women have been striving to achieve liberation and gender equality through formation of movements ranging from political, economic, and social movements. In solidarity, women across nations since the past years have been campaigning for their rights specifically, right to education, maternity leaves, rights to vote, domestic and sexual violence eradication, equal pay across both gender in the same profession, sharing of domestic responsibilities, in addition to sexual harassment abolition. In their respective books: ‘Feminism in Waves’ by Nicholson 2010, ‘Multiracial Feminism’ by Thompson 2002, Re-Rooting American Women’s Activism’, by Hewitt 2001, and ‘Globalization of the Local/Localization of the Global’ by Amrita 2000, the authors reflects on impacts of transnational women movements on women’s rights between the 19th and 20th century.
Globalization Of The Local/Localization Of The Global: Mapping Transnational Women’s Movements. Amrita, 2000, illustrates the implications of women movements at local and global level between 1960s and 2000. According to Amrita, transnational movements can be more effective than the local movements since there is an association of several organizations like NGOs and advocacy groups that covers a wide range of women rights, although in some cases the combination of global and local movements are effectively superior.
Re-Rooting American Women’s Activism: Global Perspectives on 1848. Hewitt describes how the women rights in the 1840s were defined by women from different regions, races, religions, ideologies, ethnicity and economic background. American Women activism has transformed over years since 1840s through transnational movements; women activists campaigned in unison to achieve liberation and attain economic, gender and racial justice.
Feminism in Waves: Useful Metaphor or Not? According to Nicholson, the vigor of the activities of feminists in the U.S in early 1990s had diminished as compared to 1960s. In 1960s the feminists described their movements as a second wave, which served as a reminder to people that the movements were not chronological peculiarities but were part of a long activism tradition. Nicholson opposes the terming of the movements of the 19th century as feminism.
Multiracial Feminism: Recasting the Chronology of Second Wave Feminism. Thompson reveals the biasness of races in the second wave of feminism. Feminist groups were dominated by white women with countable blacks, Latinos and Asians in 19th century. It was not until 1970s and 1980s that the multiracial feminism strategies were established. Ironically, multiracial feminism is deemed the core of women’s liberation struggle.
From the readings, the authors share their mixed feelings about women transnational movements, feminism and their impacts on the society significantly. Reflecting the 19th century, women have been engaging in organizations and association to form movements that engineered women liberation from oppression, social discomforts, economic and civil imprisonment. Formation of both transnational and local movements and the respective activities has fruitfully relieved women globally from chains of inequality as well as injustice (Amrita, 2000). Women can now enjoy rights to education, equal employment and pay, reproductive rights, rights to vote, and right to own property regardless of marital status. Waves of feminism piloted creation of alliances among the pioneer feminists across Europe, France and Germany based on their similar thoughts of women liberation.
Although Hewitt claims that society can be transformed by eradication of oppression, the process is a complicated one since oppression in intertwined in family settings, church, community, economy and politics. Re-rooting the problem requires a calculated systematic procedure by feminists. Notably, the readings are contradicting in that Thompson and Hewitt refer to 19th century movements as feminism while Nicholson claims that women movements like the Suffrage in the 19th century should not be termed as ‘feminist’ movements since those active during the suffrage did not use the term neither did they have sufficient political goals as compared to the feminism pioneers in the early 20th century.
My point of interest from the reading is discrimination against sexual orientation. Everyone should be treated equally regardless of their sexual orientation. Thanks to feminism, South African constitution prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation. Similarly, Namibia’s constitution forbids sex discrimination and authorizes affirmative action for women. Women movements have created a huge impact on women’s liberation and rights since the past, locally and globally.
Amrita, Basu. “Globalization Of The Local/Localization Of The Global: Mapping Transnational Women’s Movements.” Pp 68-76. 2000. File 326256463_Globalization_of_the_LocalLocalization_of_the_Global-_Mapping_Transnational_Womens_Movement_8983737421716835.pdf. 23 Oct. 2019.
Hewitt, Nancy. “Re-Rooting American Women’s Activism: Global Perspectives on 1848.” Pp 31-39. 2001. File 326256463_Re-Rooting_American_Womens_Activism-_Global_Perspectives_on_1848_117565332621721.pdf. 23 Oct.2019.
Nicholson, Linda. “Feminism In “Waves: Useful Metaphor or Not?” pp 49-55. 2010. File 326256463_Useful_Metaphor_6341170703787851.pdf. 23 Oct.2019.
Thompson, Becky. “Multiracial Feminism: Recasting the Chronology of Second Wave Feminism.” pp 56-57. 2002. File 326256463_Multiracial_Feminism-_Recasting_the_Chronology_of_Second_Wave_Feminism_2102094387836048.pdf. 23 Oct.2019.