Sample Geology Paper on Cannon Beach Tsunami

Cannon Beach Tsunami

Vertical Evacuation (TVE) is a method or technique used to evacuate coastal communities when there is a threat of the tsunami, and there are no high accessible grounds for evacuation. Deciding where to position the tsunami victims is a complicated management question. For instance, different models simulating several earthquakes shows that local communities of Long Beach would be inundated in less than thirty minutes and this makes it impossible for one to move to a high safe ground at that time. A potential solution to the above problem is a vertical evacuation.

Vertical evacuation centers can be building or structure that has been constructed for evacuating tsunami refugees. However, the building can be a multi-purpose whereby it would be used for service (can be used as a parking lot) when it is not being used as an evacuation center.. When deciding the location of these very important facilities one should ensure that evacuation rooms are easily accessible. Travel time by the refugee must take into consideration vertical circulation within the structure to levels above the inundation depth. The site of refuge centers should be near city centers and close to the school because these are the areas with the majority of people.(Schmidtlein & Wood, 2015)

Vertical evacuation structures are most needed in areas where there are no raised grounds (hills) near the shores of the ocean. In such areas, evacuation structures are of great importance because in the case of a tsunami, there will be no haven for the area residents. In some places though hilly, a vertical evacuation is required because the height of the hill may not be enough. Scientists and engineers project that tsunami refugees on high grounds of about 100 feet above sea level may not be safe. So if the raised terrain in an area is about 100 feet or less than that that area cannot be used for evacuation. Finally, another area where vertical evacuation is required is in areas where we have many visitors who do not know the geographic terrain of that region.

Some coastal areas do not require vertical evacuation centers. If an area has never been hit by tsunami and occurrence of earthquakes are very rare, or they have never happened in that region there is no need for constructing vertical evacuations. Another area that does not require vertical evacuation structure is an area where the terrain is raised and is easily accessible to people.

For a vertical evacuation structure to serve effectively, it is advisable that the safe haven should be above the highest tsunami inundation level expected at the site. While determining an appropriate elevation for the tsunami victim one must take into consideration the possible splash up water during the impact of the waves, the unsure inherent in the estimation of tsunami run-up height and the level of anxiety of the evacuees in the structure. To counter the above uncertainties, the highest tsunami run-up elevation is taken to be 30% more than predicted by simulation. The advocated least elevation for tsunami safe haven is, the highest tsunami run-up elevation expected at that place, plus freeboard allowance of at least 10 feet and finally, you add   30%.



McConnell, N., & Boyce, K. (2013). Refuge areas and vertical evacuation of multistory buildings: the end users’ perspectives. Fire Mater.39(4), 396-406.

Schmidtlein, M., & Wood, N. (2015). Sensitivity of tsunami evacuation modeling to direction and land        cover   assumptions. Applied Geography, 56, 154-163.

Forcael, E., González, V., Orozco, F., Vargas, S., Pantoja, A., & Moscoso, P. (2014). AntColony                                                                                                                                                                                  Optimization Model for Tsunamis Evacuation Routes. Computer-Aided   Civil And Infrastructure Engineering, 29(10), 723-737