Sample Geology Paper on Geology (and other Earth sciences)

How many earthquakes are listed on this map?

As indicated from the USGS map area, the number of earthquakes listed on this map is 313.

How many earthquakes are over 6.0 over the week?

The USGS map area indicates that there are two earthquakes that are above the magnitude of 6.0. The first earthquake is M 6.0 – 106km WNW of Sola, Vanuatu and  the second earthquake has a magnitude of 7.3 – 83km W of Nikol’s koye, Russia

How many between 4.5 and 6.0 over the week?

There are about 104 earthquakes with a magnitude that falls within 4.5 and 6.0. The largest earthquake has a magnitude of 4.5 km and is recorded 8km N of Guaymate, Dominican Republic with a depth of 109.0Km.

What country outside the U.S. or its territories had the most earthquakes during this time?

Russia had the most earthquakes during this time.

Where was the most recent earthquake over 4.5? What magnitude was it? How deep was it? Is this shallow, intermediate, or deep?

The most recent earthquake as recorded  the USGS map area (n.d) had a magnitudes of 5.0 and was recorded 101km South West of Tres Picos, Mexico at 2018-12-21 01:59:11 (UTC) and with a depth of 44.0 km.  The depth range of an earthquake measures between 0-700km and is usually classified into different zones. A shallow earthquake has depth of 0 to 70 km; intermediate earthquake ranges 70 to 300 km and lastly a   deep earthquake has a depth of 300 to 700 km.  Therefore, the South West of Tres Picos, Mexico earthquake was a shallow earthquake since it falls between to 70 km.

Explain the type of plate boundary it was near. Why are earthquakes common to this area? Where was the deepest earthquake during the week?

The South West of Tres Picos, Mexico was near a convergent boundary since the Cocos collided with the North American plate. Mexico is located on top of the largest tectonic plates on the earth which includes the North American plate, the Cocos Plate, and the Pacific Plate and this makes earthquakes very common. Whenever these plates collide with each other, an earthquake is bound to occur. Furthermore, Mexico is prone to earthquakes since it is a sub-duction zone. A sub-duction zone is a section of the earth where one chunk of the earth crust slowly slides on another.  In the case of Mexico, the Cocos plate slowly sinks beneath the North American plate.  During this week, the deepest earthquake recorded was also the most recent (the South West of Tres Picos, Mexico and with a depth of 44.0 km).

On what type of boundary was this? Where was the most recent earthquake closest to you? Include the name of the city and state you reside in (or country if outside of the United States). Was it associated with a boundary?

I reside in Orcutt City in the State California and the most recent earthquake occurred 4Km on East South East of our city and a depth of 0.2km. It was a shallow earthquake but very terrifying. Most of the California is located alongside the plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plate. As such, the type of earthquake that hit Orcutt City can be considered a transform boundary in which two plates collide on each other.

Was there any relationship between the plate boundary where the largest, most numerous and deepest earthquakes occurred?

In most cases, there is usually a relationship between a plate boundary and a deep earthquake.  A high number of Earthquakes usually occur along the transform faults, for example, the one mentioned above that occurred in Orcutt City in the State California.

Based on your knowledge of earthquakes, is this what you would have expected from that type of boundary(ies)?

Indeed, according to Earle (2015) an earthquake that occurs along the transform faults are usually shallow and, without severe impacts compared with those that happen in convergent boundaries. Therefore, I would not have expected any different results. An earthquake that occurs along the transform faults produce similar outcome in all the regions. From the list provided, the transform fault boundary appears to produce the most earthquakes. Most of the earthquakes have a magnitude of 3.0 and below and a depth of 50.0 km and below.

Put the settings on 7 days, magnitude 4.5+ US. Find a region where there is a high concentration of earthquakes.

Indonesia appears to have a high concentration of earthquakes

What country(ies) are nearby? What type of boundary are the quakes on?

The countries nearby are India are Japan. The earthquakes in India are often caused by the plate boundary that often results from the collision between the India and Eurasia plates. On the other, the quakes in Japan are often as a result of the North America plate, Pacific plate, Philippine Sea plate, and Eurasia plate. All these plates tend to influence the tectonic setting of Japan, Taiwan, and the surrounding environments.

 

References

Earle, S. (2015). Physical Geology: Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:             https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/11-2-earthquakes-and-plate-tectonics/

USGS. (n.d). 7 Days, Magnitude 2.5+ U.S. Retrieved from:            https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/

USGS. (n.d). 7 Days, Magnitude 4.5+ U.S. S. Retrieved from:        https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/