Sample Geology Paper on Natural Disaster-Tsunami

Natural Disaster-Tsunami

  1. Main Causes of Tsunami

The tsunamis are case by rapid movement of the ocean as a result of volcanic eruptions, landslides, and earthquakes.

  1. Differences between tsunami waves and normal wind-caused waves.

Although related, there exist differences between tsunami waves and normal wind-caused waves. First, tsunami waves are as a result of sudden movement of huge volume of water from underneath, while the latter is caused by wind movement over the sea surface. Thus, tsunami waves emanate from the seabed to the surface, while normal wind-caused waves exist from water surface. Second, tsunami waves compared normal wind-caused waves are characterized by high speed and height, which changes as the tsunami reaches the coast.

  1. For a tsunami wave that was 10 meters high in shallow water when it hit the coast, about how high was it likely to be when it was traveling over Deep Ocean?

The speed of a tsunami varies based on the depth of the sea water. For instance, given that the acceleration gravity is 9.8m/sec 2 , the tsunami speed at 10 meters is approximately 36km/h. Assuming the depth of the ocean is 5,000 m traveling at a speed of 800km/h, then the height is = 0.13 m.



  1. Natural ‘warnings’ of a Tsunami

The primary natural warnings that can be used as an indication of an approaching coastal area are strong round shaking and tremor as a result of an earthquake. The other warning is unusual sea-level fluctuations in coastal waters which are caused by displacement of the deep sea surface. Lastly, loud ocean roars characterized by abnormal huge wave indicates an upcoming tsunami.

  1. The plate-boundaries producing earthquakes and tsunami

Earthquakes are responsible for the generation of tsunami. Most of the tsunamis take place as a result of a sudden vertical displacement of tectonic places. The common plate-boundaries responsible for earthquakes that generate large tsunami are: convergent plate boundary, divergent plate boundary, and transform plate boundary. At transform boundaries, the tectonic plates slide past one another, causing tremors, while at divergent boundaries, the plates usually move from one another creating a ditch, and convergent plate’s causes trenches.