Sample Health Care Questions
The number of red blood cells in human body varies depending with age and health but on average there are about 45% of red blood cells in the human body.
- What is Hematocrit?
Hematocrit refers to the percentage of red blood cells in the blood.
- Blood volume in the body depends on?
Blood volume in the body depends on body size, changes in fluid concentration, changes in electrolyte concentration, and amount of adipose tissue.
- Normal white blood cell count is?
The normal range for white blood cells count varies but it ranges between 5,000 and 10,000 per cubic millimeter of blood.
- What are platelets?
Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are blood components whose role is to help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to broken surfaces.
- What is the function of lymphocytes?
The function of lymphocytes is to provide immunity to the body.
- Which WBC’s are the most active as phagocytes?
The most active phagocytic white blood cells include neutrophils and monocytes.
- What are the nitrogenous non-proteins in the blood?
Nitrogenous non-proteins refer to molecules such as Urea, uric acid and amino acids that contain nitrogen but are not proteins.
- What is a thrombus?
A thrombus is an abnormal blood clot that forms in blood vessels blocking the normal flow of blood.
- What do AB red blood cells have on their surfaces?
AB red blood cells contain antigens (A and B) but have no antibodies.
- Erythroblastosis fetalis happens to?(Rh pregnancies)
Erythroblastosis fetalis happens to unborn babies and happens when the blood type of the mother and the child is incompatible.
- What percentage of the blood is plasma?
55% of blood in the body is plasma.
- Where are red blood cells produced in the human body?
Red blood cells in the human body are produced in the red bone marrow
- How many liters of blood are pumped by the heart each day?
The heart pumps 7,000 liters of blood through the body each day.
- Why is circulation vital to life?
Blood circulation system is very important to life it transports blood and other important materials throughout the body.
- What does the pulmonary circuit do versus the systemic circuit?
The Systemic circuit delivers oxygen to all body cells and carries away wastes while pulmonary circuit eliminates carbon dioxide via the lungs and oxygenates the blood.
- What happens when the ventricular walls contract?
When the ventricular walls contract, the atria walls relaxes and the mitral and tricuspid valves close.
- Trace the blood from the vena cava to the lungs.
Blood from the body flows to Vena cava and then taken to the right atrium through the tricuspid valve. It then goes to the right ventricle through the pulmonic valve. From pulmonic valve, it is transported to the pulmonary artery and finally goes to the lungs.
The wall of the heart has three layers namely; Epicardium (outer layer), Myocardium (middle layer) and Endocardium (inner layer).Epicardium is the outer layer whose function is to protect outer covering of the heart. The middle layer, Myocardium, contracts and relaxes allowing the blood to pump from the heart chambers. Endocardium is the inner layer protecting the chambers and the valves.
- Know the valves and their functions.
There are four main valves in the heart namely; the tricuspid valve, the aortic valve, the mitral valve and the pulmonary valve. Tricuspid valve prevents blood from moving from the right ventricle into the right atrium during the ventricular contraction. Pulmonary valve prevents blood from moving from pulmonary trunk into right ventricle during ventricular relaxation. Mitral valve on the other hand prevents blood from moving from left ventricle into left atrium during ventricular contraction while aortic valve prevents blood flow from aorta into left ventricle during the ventricular relaxation.
- Know the EKG waves and what the correlate to in a single heartbeat.
EKG waves are is a recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle and is used to assess the hearts ability to conduct impulses.
- What is the normal pacemaker of the heart?
The sinoatrial node (SA node) is the heart’s natural pacemaker.
- Know what you are hearing when you are listening to different areas of the heart with a stethoscope.
Several sounds are heard When you are listening to different area of the heart with a stethoscopes. “lubb-dupp” is the sound of a heart beat that occurs during ventricular systole when The A-V valves are closing.
The second heart sound (“dupp”) occurs during ventricular diastole when the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves are closing.
A murmur sound is an abnormal heart sound from the cusps not completely closing.
- What factors can increase the heart rate and blood pressure?
Increase in the heart rate is as a result of decrease in blood pressure and decrease in stroke volume. Blood pressure increases when there is decrease in heart rate and stroke volume.
- Systolic pressure is associated with?
Systolic pressure is associated with arterial blood pressure and refers to the maximum pressure during ventricular contraction
- Arteries vs Venules?
Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood from the heart while venules receive blood from capillaries.
- Cardiac Output Formula?
Cardiac output (CO) is equivalent to Blood pressure (BP) divide by peripheral resistance (PR)
- When the left ventricle contracts – blood flows to the?
When the left ventricle contracts the blood flows to the aorta.
- Blood is supplied to the myocardium by what vessels?
Blood is supplied to the myocardium Posterior interventricular artery
- Blood vessels that have walls thin enough for gas exchange are?
Capillaries are the only blood vessels that have walls thin enough for gas exchange
- The blood in the arteries and arterioles in the pulmonary circuit is high in?
The blood in the arteries and arterioles in the pulmonary circuit is high in ventricular systole.
- What is respiration?
Respiration is the process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells.
- What are the events of respiration?
Five events or processes occur during Respiration namely; Ventilation, External respiration, Transport of gases, Internal respiration and Cellular respiration
- What is the ultimate function of breathing?
The main function of breathing is to supply energy to the cells by providing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the cells.
- Where are the vocal cords located?
Vocal cords are located in the larynx.
- What are the functions of the nasal passages?
The nasal passage/cavity main function is to filter, warm, and moisturize the air entering the body system.
- Describe the trachea.
The trachea, also known as the wind pipe, is a flexible cylindrical tube about 2.5 centimeters in diameter and 12.5 centimeters in length. It splits into the right and left primary bronchi as it extends downward anterior to the esophagus and into the thoracic cavity.
- Where does the force that moves oxygen into the lungs originate from?
The force that moves oxygen into the lungs originates from the Diaphragm.
- What is tidal volume?
Tidal volume refers to the respiratory air volume moved in or out of the lungs during a respiratory cycle.
- Where in the brain are the respiratory centers?
The respiratory centers in the brain are located in the medulla oblongata and pons.
- What factors affect breathing rate?
Breathing rate is affected by factors including; Partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), Degree of stretch of lung tissue, Emotional state and the Level of physical activity.
- What keeps the alveoli clean?
The alveoli are cleaned by the alveolar macrophages.
- What proteins transport carbon dioxide in the blood?
Carbon dioxide in the blood is transported by being dissolved in the plasma. Some is also transported as a compound with hemoglobin. In addition; carbon dioxide is also transported as a bicarbonate ion.