Sample Healthcare Paper on At-Risk Preschoolers/ADHD Students


Essentially, children between the ages of 3-5 years have a higher infinity to early developmental delays that may result in attention deficiency disorders and hyperactivity. The condition tends to affect the children’s overall behavior. The extent of this condition is particularly notable among preschoolers in early childhood classes where the victims tend to experiences instances of disruptive behaviors while in the classroom setting (Taylor, Smiley, & Richards, 2016). Researchers clarify those developmental delays as more than the standard presumption of a little delay in a child’s growth pattern. On the contrary, the condition involves a substantial lag in most of the areas of development in a preschooler (Beasley, 2002). To this end, students with ADHD are individuals in early childhood who exhibit instances of developmental delays in the main areas of cognitive and intellectual growth. The extent to which ADHD affects preschoolers is associated with a brain disorder that affects the normal functioning of the victim.

The condition is mostly identifiable and treatable in primary school or during the preschool stages of learning. The students with the ADHD are labeled and categorized as students with disabilities because, in the end, the condition applies as any other form of invalidity that has the potential to derail a student’s mental and cognitive growth. To this end, at risk, preschoolers require a large degree of care and consideration in class and may need interventions and unique approaches that aim to ensure the learners achieve full potential in the class settings. The extent of ADHD is in most instances classified as a disruptive disorder that may have a broad range of characteristics.




Characteristics of Students with ADHD

Indeed, as noted in the introduction part at risk-preschoolers or ADHD students suffer from a brain condition that may significantly affect various elements of growth. One of the key characteristics that capitalize early developmental delays is the inability in the students to communicate or use a language effectively. Ideally, in the preschool setting, typical children will use simple structured sentences to communicate or pass across a message. However, preschoolers with early developmental issues will have challenges in the manner in which they communicate or pass information. The other closely related aspect is the reality that such individual students will have significant social cognition problems. For instance, the extent to which students with early developmental issues relate socially with other students’ faces various challenges as they may not be articulate in the language. On the other hand, the students with ADHD and delayed development may not be as intelligent as their counterparts with normal growth. In essence, inattention is one of the more common characteristics of students with early developmental issues.

The extent to which a student tends to wander off the initial task may have a clear indication of students with ADHD. Similarly, inattention may involve a less level of sustained focus on various tasks and a very high level of disorganization. In many instances, the students will also lack the slightest degree of persistence when undertaking tasks. Another common characteristic is the extent of hyperactive activity notable in a preschooler. Ordinarily, while younger children tend to have high levels of activities, at-risk preschoolers are overly fidgety and are rarely under control. Research indicates that in unique situations at risks preschoolers tend to be highly impulsive and excessively interruptive. The characteristics as mentioned above form part of the aspects that may point to an early development issues in preschoolers and ADHD.


Best Practices When Dealing with At-Risk Preschoolers

One of the recent discoveries in the research on ADHD, and the possible areas of interventions is the use of school and teacher intervention. Indeed, in the past, there were questions over the extent to which a parenting contributes to the child’s developmental delays. However, over the last century, tremendous progress is observable, as more teacher-based approaches become a core part of intervention for students with ADHD. For instance, teachers have adopted a strategy that involves a questioning regime that is repetitive and that aims to ensure that the student undergoes an entire lesson plan. On the other hand, examination ensures that the student is constantly in focus when setting long-range goals seems untenable. Research points out that sequencing and completion of tasks is one of the greatest challenges for students with ADHD. The best practice, in this case, is the application of a teacher intervention where the work is broken down to form tenable goals and plans that are easy to monitor and walk within objective timings.

The other key best practice is to ensure that the teacher helps the students in setting timelines for the delivery of tasks as a way of developing a higher level of focus and concentration on a particular task. The interventions or best practices, in this case, touch more specifically on the development of a strategy that can aid in handling the issues of attention deficiency. For instance, by defining the requirements of a completed task, a teacher sets the standard for the student by indicating what level of completion is acceptable. As a result, the teacher avoids the possibility of a student jumping from one assignment or task to the next without fully completing the previous tasks. Similarly, teachers who deal with preschoolers who show instances of ADHD will often embrace the combined input of oral and written/visual instructions as a way of enhancing a child’s attention. For example, when giving instructions a teacher may combine both verbal and visual cues that aim to improve a student’s attention and memory. Repetition is a core element when handling at-risk ADHD students. The assertion is because the students can learn and remember aspects related to the learning process efficiently through repetition. As noted, language is a significant barrier in the course of learning especially for individual children.

The most appropriate practice in such situations is the use of positive reinforcement where the teacher does not always focus on the failures of the student but rather seeks to point out any instances of success or accomplishment when dealing with such students. Correspondingly, dealing with a student who shows signs of early developmental issues requires a combination of empathy and patience. The assertion means providing reduced tasks for the child and ensuring that every assignment focuses more on the quality as opposed to the quantity. The approach ensures that the child can maintain the higher level of attention and focus on matters at hand. The other key best practice when dealing with preschoolers who may have early developmental disorders is the inclusion of constant checks that aim to ensure that there are regular checks that review progress and detect any possible instances where the students may lag behind. The teachers and parents must liaise in such situations to monitor the progressive growth of the student. On the same note, teaching tactics that may enhance memory where the affected students may learn visualization tactics may be critical. For instance, the teacher may use a combination of seeing and saying as the way of boosting the extent to which the student can improve their memory levels.



Education Inclusion

One of the common education programs in the process of enhancing care for students with ADHD is the use of inclusion education for such students. The inclusion programs apply as core educational need guidelines for the students (Worcester, 2011). Teacher-led educational interventions mainly focus on controlling the academic activities of the learner with the aim of developing an enabling physical environment for the students. The teacher-led education programs must concentrate on areas within the particular child’s immediate environment that may have a direct adverse effect on the child’s growth. The teacher-led educational techniques, in this case, include the setting up of classroom programs that have a concise course timetable where the educators and students have a clear time plan on the course direction and areas that require special considerations (Kuehn, 2007). Ideally, the teacher-led interventions have a direct effect on the students, because they have a direct command on the child and therefore, influence the transformation process. In the end, the teacher-led intervention works more efficiently as opposed to the non-intervention programs.

Giving Effective Commands

In essence, as a teacher, one has an immediate impact on the outcome of the particular child. The intervention is critical because it enhances the teacher’s control over the child’s growth (Lvova, 2016). The effective command strategy is effectual because, in the end, the teacher can influence the outcome of the child’s development. The influence occurs through constant positive reinforcement when the child succeeds. On the other hand, the teacher reprimands the students when they are at fault.



Support and Training

One of the other direct interventions is the use of support and training in instances where school-based interventions apply. Ideally, the program ensures that the teacher and all other individuals involved in the process of teaching the special need students have a higher level of training on supportive structures that when employed may have a direct impact on the child’s transformation (Yu & Sonuga-Barke, 2016). The fact that the process of change when dealing with individual children requires the inclusion and support from the entire school setting means that training is a critical element when handling special children.


The extent to which evaluation occurs entails more than just the regular examination of progress through written tests. As a matter of principle, the areas to which such programs are examined revolve around the progressive elements in the transformation of the child. For instance, answering theoretical questions concerning the progress notable in a particular child’s growth may yield substantive information. On the contrary, the practicability of some of these approaches can only be distinguished when one assesses the children from a classroom setting (Brunk, 2006). To this end, evaluation should entail developing an understanding of the school-based approaches that may ensure the minimization of elements such as delayed development in these children. On the other hand, an evaluation must also focus on developing an understanding of the dynamics that encompass ADHD as a way of establishing contingency strategies that aid in dealing with children with delayed development.





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Beasley, T. (2002). Influence of Culture-Related Experiences and Sociodemographic Risk Factors on Cognitive Readiness among Preschoolers. Journal Of Education For Students Placed At Risk (JESPAR), 7(1), 3-23.

Brunk, D. (2006). Comorbidity to ADHD Plays Into How Preschoolers Respond to Rx.Family Practice News36(24), 24. (06)74323-7

Kuehn, B. (2007). Delayed Development in ADHD. JAMA298(24), 2858.

Lvova, O. (2016). Delayed memory in ADHD children. European Psychiatry33, S354.

Taylor, R. L., Smiley, L. R., & Richards, S. (2015). Exceptional students: Educating all teachers for 21st century. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Worcester, S. (2011). ADHD Guideline Expands to Teens, Preschoolers. Pediatric News, 45(11), 18. (11)70292-2

Yu, X. & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2016). Childhood ADHD and Delayed Reinforcement: A Direct Comparison of Performance on Hypothetical and Real-Time Delay Tasks. Journal of Attention Disorders.

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