Only slightly above 35% of women in the US between 19 and 30 years of age meet the required daily levels of calcium while about 40% take the requirements of vitamin D. Sufficient intake of vitamin D and calcium by young females is significant in the prevention of osteoporosis. Decreased bone mineral density attributable to osteoporosis is linked to high risk of fragile hip, spine, and other bones, which may easily cause fractures that result in increased mortality and morbidity. Osteoporosis-linked fractures cost the US 17 billion dollars in 2005 and are expected to rise to 25 billion dollars by 2025. The purpose of the article by Lein, Turner, and Wilroy (2016) was to assess the efficacy of theory-anchored osteoporosis prevention plans on vitamin D and calcium health values in youthful women.
In the methodology, 152 women between 19 and 25 years were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: 51 in a brochure group, 51 in a computer-personalized plan group, and 50 in the computer-tailored group, as is group 2 but with a concise verbal response. Participants finished surveys concerning osteoporosis beliefs before and instantly following the assigned intervention. Moreover, they undertook surveys gauging osteoporosis conducts before and a month after intervention. The results of the study established that all the 152 participants considerably improved the consumption of calcium from baseline to a month after the intervention. Every group experienced a noteworthy reduction in perceived barriers to obtaining sufficient vitamin D and considerable increases in alleged osteoporosis vulnerability and severity. The article concluded that the study was successful in undertaking the osteoporosis prevention plans for youthful women through computer-modified messages and brochures.
Osteoporosis denotes a disease in which a progressive weakness of bones boosts the chances of fracture. It is the commonest cause of broken bones amid older adults with the bones that usually break comprising of the vertebrae in the spine and hipbone . Devoid of the breakage of the bones, there are characteristically no symptoms of osteoporosis (Lein et al., 2016). Before breaking, bones continue to weaken to such an extent that a fracture may occur with very little stress. Chronic pain coupled with a reduced capacity to undertake normal duties might arise after a broken bone. Attempts to prevent breaking of bones in people with osteoporosis or at risk encompass proper diet, physical activities, and fall prevention.
The Health Belief Model employed in the research evaluates the health of the participants through the application of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale consisting of six items and a 5-point Likert scale to assess each item response. Perceived osteoporosis vulnerability, alleged osteoporosis severity, and assumed hindrances to sufficient daily consumption of calcium were employed in the scale. High scores on the scales signified insights of an increased possibility of having osteoporosis, the dread of the consequences of osteoporosis, and greater experience with calcium intake hindrances. Lein et al. (2016) established that the scales portrayed good assessment-retest consistency. Other studies have previously found that the scales have good internal reliability in young and older women. The researchers earlier developed and assessed a 5-item scale that appraised hindrances to the consumption of vitamin D. They employed a 5-point Likert scale to check every item response akin to one of perceived barriers to the required calcium intake. The vulnerability details inform the researcher of the belief of the participants concerning how vulnerable they consider themselves to be to osteoporosis at some point in life. The severity is concerned with the participants’ convictions of the seriousness of osteoporosis and the much it would affect them, their family members, and friends. The perceived hindrances denote the different forms of barriers that an individual believes they would face and which would significantly affect their sufficient intake of calcium. Self-efficacy inculcated through the study entails the comprehension by the participants and their capabilities; that is, perhaps the participant requires to know the recommended daily intake of calcium and the food to consume or finds it hard to tell if something is wrong. The evaluation done through the Health Belief Model will assist in understanding the aspects that should change and the steps to take.
The article has expanded my knowledge and deliberation regarding the application of the Health Belief Model in different osteoporosis prevention programs. I have learned that the most effective intervention ought to be suitable in length, pleasant, relevant, and useful. The generation of a favorable environment that is organized, professional, welcoming, and comfortable seems to facilitate contribution. Health professionals and other medical experts may show gusto, present clear instructions, speak with positivity, and issue reminders with consistency. Through the research, the study identified what the population requires to enhance awareness and understanding with the aim of preventing and decreasing the occurrence of osteoporosis (Lein et al., 2016). Although there is a need for further research in the field, I am confident that the article holds promise for medical education practice in the planning of cost-effective programs for the prevention of osteoporosis in young women.
Lein, D. H., Turner, L., & Wilroy, J. (2016). Evaluation of three osteoporosis prevention programs for young women: Application of the health belief model. American Journal of Health Education, 47(4), 224-233.