Sample Healthcare Paper on Prevention and Treatment of Malaria in Manipal, India

Malaria is among the deadly diseases that cause fatalities in a short time if not diagnosed and treated early enough. It has caused millions of deaths around the world, including India. Historically, the highest number of malaria incidences in India took place in the 1950s, according to the World Health Organization (Samby et al., 2019). Malaria is a communicable disease that is spread through bites from anopheles mosquitos. The infected mosquito carries a parasite known as plasmodium, which is released into the body during the biting. Some of the symptoms of malaria include high fever, chills, nausea, and headache and muscle pain among others. It is only diagnosed medically through blood tests in the laboratory (Maskeri et al., 2018). The disease can be prevented by sleeping under a treated mosquito net, clearing bushes and stagnant water among other measures. It is treated by medication by qualified medical professionals. In most of the world, efforts are being made to put an end to new infections and the spread of malaria. In the Manipal area of the Karnataka State, India malaria has been a life-threatening disease that has caused long-term health issues and deaths.

The aim of this research seeks to identify some of the cases of malaria in Manipal, India. It also highlights the preventive and treatment measures put in place. This study is captivated by the recurrent cases of malaria in the region, which has created losses and concern among the residents and the country (Verma et al., 2013). The project will also highlight a profound background of cases of tests conducted on individuals in the area. Besides, it will highlight some of the efforts by the government and community health workers in preventing and eradicating this deadly disease. Community members have also been considered as helpful agents in championing for the prevention of malaria and the spread of new cases.

Literature Review

Malaria is one of the significant challenges facing India. In the Manipal area of Karnataka India, a study was carried out among workers at a construction site. It involved both qualitative and quantitative studies at their worksites and their residences. The interview sought to understand how the environment influences malaria. Twenty respondents were interviewed at four worksites in Manipal and neighboring communities. The findings highlighted open tanks, car tyres, poor sewage disposal, high temperatures thick vegetation and high humidity among the causes and spread of malaria (Wangdi et al., 2019). It was recommended that residents in the area should be educated on the importance of conserving the environment to prevent the spread of the disease. The conservation measures included outdoor spraying in the thickets, garbage removal and maintaining general environmental hygiene. It was found that construction sites were among the significant contributors to the transmission of malaria (Poovathingal & Nagiri, 2014).

The significant cases of malaria in the Manipal area of the Udupi District were the presence of construction sites. This is according to research conducted. The sites were full of water tanks used for storing water for construction purposes. The stagnant water, therefore, served as a breeding point for mosquitoes that cause malaria. It was also found that migrant workers were the highest suffering from the malaria epidemic. They were not used to the temperatures of the locality, therefore, being easy prey to the mosquitoes (Verma, 2013). As per 2019, the malaria cases in the district had declined to 221 compared to 2012, where they were at 2217. That was, according to Prashanth Bhat, who is the District Malaria Control Officer.

In an article written in The Hindu, measures were taken by the Department of Health and Family Welfare to prevent the continuous spread of malaria in Udupi, which includes the Manipal area (Prabhu, 2015). The department focused on construction sites which were identified as significant places with high cases of the disease. Meetings were held with hotel owners, contractors and supervisors of construction sites to discuss the way forward. The department employed the use of social media in spreading the efficient measures of preventing malaria (Malaria cases on the decline in Udupi district, says officer, 2019). All these activities took place in 2015 to try and eradicate the disease from the locality. The department also collaborated with the Department of Public Health at the University of Manipal in conducting Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping of dengue and malaria cases in the locality. The mapping was aimed at identifying the exact places where the diseases were highly concentrated.

According to research conducted on inpatients in Kasturba hospital in Manipal, malaria still caused havoc among residents. The study was conducted on 183 people aged 18 years and above from 2009 to 2011. They tested positive for plasmodium falciparum. Among the participants, male participants were higher at 78%. Most of the malaria cases occurred during the monsoon season (In its quest to eliminate malaria, India focuses on Odisha and the tribal states, 2019). The symptoms ranged from fever, jaundice, headache and vomiting. Others had complications that included hepatic dysfunction, shock, altered sensorism and renal failure.

Treatment and Prevention

Malaria has been prevalent in areas with high humidity and temperatures, offering a conducive environment for the breeding of the anopheles mosquito. According to Prabhu (2015), India has been reported to be malaria-endemic and the Manipal area of Karnataka state is indifferent. Among the prevention methods adopted include the awareness and sensitization among residents in the malaria-prone regions. According to studies and reports, residents in and around Manipal get educated on the need to care for their environment. The measures include clearing of vegetation around homes and draining stagnant water (Poovathingal & Nagiri, 2014). They are also sensitized on the importance of taking preventive measures and the effects of malaria which in some cases without treatment lead to fatalities.

Around the world, prevention measures are based on two methods namely chemoprophylaxis and protecting the body against mosquito bites. Efforts to come up with vaccines against malaria are underway and most individuals are hopeful that it will be a success. In Manipal, residents have been sensitized on ways of preventing mosquito bites (Poovathingal & Nagiri, 2014). The primary way to avoid the bites is by putting on clothes that cover the body and avoiding places suspected to have mosquitoes. Besides, sprays and ointments are used to keep the mosquitoes away  .

The quest of India as a whole to completely eradicate malaria by 2030 is underway. Generally, cases of malaria have dropped since the introduction of insecticidal nets. In Manipal, the residents have been supplied with mosquito nets for use during sleeping to prevent mosquito bites. With the help of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), villagers were provided with treated bed nets (Prabhu, 2015). That was a move financed by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. They are also issued with indoor sprays that kill the mosquitoes. These preventive measures have contributed to the decline of the number of populations infected with the disease. The ASHAs also educate the residents on the importance of using the mosquito nets.

Treating expectant mothers is another significant preventive measure against malaria. Pregnant women are reported to have a lower immunity which puts them in a vulnerable situation. They are therefore offered antimalarial doses during the gestation period which can protect the mother and the unborn child. With the help of ASHAs in Manipal and the more significant Karnataka state, expectant mothers are sensitized on visiting health centers upon suspected symptoms of the disease. Children below the age of five are also highly protected against the deadly parasite because of their immunity status (Redd et al., 2011). Mothers are therefore asked to visit health facilities with their ailing children to avoid further complications. At the hospitals, they are tested and issued with the required medication, mosquito nets and preventive counseling.

Malaria in India is treated medically depending on the type of infection, its severity, the host’s status, and other diseases associated with it. For instance, based on the nature of the infection, patients having the Plasmodium falciparum type of malaria are supposed to be thoroughly tested to determine the severity of the disease and some possible resistant characteristics to anti-malarial drugs (Draper et al., 2017). The age of patients is also a determinant in issuing medication. Malaria is a disease that can be treated in three days but if it is diagnosed at a delayed time, it might lead to death. Besides, patients in the Manipal area and the country, in general, are treated with Primaquine as radical treatment. They also receive presumptive treatment which includes the administration of blood schizonticidal drugs to all the suspected cases of the disease. That then follows full treatment after the disease has been confirmed.

References

Draper, S., Higgins, M., Wright, K., & Douglas, A. (2017). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/500,269.

In its quest to eliminate malaria, India focuses on Odisha and the tribal states. (2019). Retrieved 8 February 2020, from https://www.who.int/malaria/news/2018/india-elimination-odisha/en/

Malaria cases on the decline in Udupi district, says officer. (2019). Retrieved 8 February 2020, from https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Mangalore/malaria-cases-on-the-decline-in-udupi-district-says-officer/article26950462.ece

Maskeri, R., Jain, A., Ullal, S., Shenoy, D., Shenoy, S., & Rai, S. (2018). Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding malaria and its prevention among patients with suspected malaria in Mangaluru. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development9(9), 271-276. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.01008.2

Poovathingal, M. A., & Nagiri, S. K. (2014). The emerging trends of falciparum malaria: a study from a tertiary centre in an endemic area of India. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine4, S81-S86.

Prabhu, G. (2015). Intensive approach towards malaria, dengue in Udupi. Retrieved 8 February 2020, from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/intensive-approach-towards-malaria-dengue-in-udupi/article7732955.ece

Redd, S. C., Luby, S. P., Hightower, A. W., Kazembe, P. N., Nwanyanwu, O., Ziba, C., … & Wirima, J. J. (2o11). Clinical algorithm for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. The Lancet347(8996), 223-227.

Samby, K., Ramachandruni, H., Banerji, J., Burrows, J. N., Daumerie, P. G., van Huijsduijnen, R. A. H., … & Wells, T. N. (2019). Partnering to fight malaria in India: Past, present and future. Journal of vector borne diseases56(1), 15.

Verma, G., Bharath, S. C. N. V., Yadav, U. N., Thapa, P., & Ogorchukwu, M. J. (2013). Environmental factors influencing malaria in Manipal, Southern Karnataka, India. IOSR J Nurs Health Sci2(5), 35-38.

Wangdi, K., Gatton, M. L., Kelly, G. C., Banwell, C., Dev, V., & Clements, A. C. (2016). Malaria elimination in India and regional implications. The Lancet infectious diseases16(10), e214-e224.