The Effects of Events in Europe on Mexico
Events in Europe during the Peninsular War had profound effects on Mexico, thus led to numerous successful independence revolutions. In 1808, Napoleon came up with the decision to replace Charles IV as the Spanish king following his abduction during the Peninsular War. News of events in Spain and other parts of the monarchy was rapidly and widely disseminated (Archer). Crisis and confusion arose in Spain, and rippled off its American colonies, such as Mexico that led to the creation of revolutions, which pushed for independence. Moreover, it led to the set-up of various councils to fill the power vacuum in Spain and the Spanish colonies.
Spanish Rule in Mexico
After the Spanish conquest over the Aztec people, a New Spain was founded, and the Spanish took control of the colonial kingdom. New Spain included Mexico, Cuba, Central South America, and the Philippines, among other areas. The Spanish had control over property rights, and categorized individuals according to their race. The categories included Spanish born individuals being at the top, Creoles, Mestizo, and the indigenous Indians and Africans.
Indigenous Efforts against Colonialism
After Spain created the New Spain colony and kingdom, which had placed the indigenous people at the bottom of the racial classification system, some indigenous groups emerged against the Spanish. The Spanish’s focus was primarily on natives living in densely populated areas. The decision was mainly because the indigenous nomadic people evaded the Spanish rule frequently making it hard for the Spanish to conquer such a population. The Spanish racially abused and oppressed the indigenous natives thus led to the emergence of revolt groups. The Mixon war was the first revolt, and it occurred for two years. However, the Spanish army took action against the native revolts and ended the rebellion (Archer). In 1550, another war broke against the Chichimeca Indians and the Spanish ended the forty-year rebellion through assimilation of the rebellious population.
Goals of Hidalgo Revolt
Inspired by the American and French revolutions, the Hidalgo revolt saw the revolution as an opportunity for territory to acquire its independence. The revolt group was formed to address the peasants and miners’ issues. The revolt group marched to Mexico City while killing Spaniards (Archer). At the capital, Hidalgo retreated against the advice of Allende, thus their execution.
State Formed After Mexico Achieved Independence
After the suppression of the Hidalgo revolt, more revolt groups emerged to fight for Mexico’s independence. The war lasted for six years, and the rebels formulated the “Plan of Iguala”. The plan demanded a constitutional monarchy, and equality for Spaniards and Creoles (Aranda Jr51). In 1821, a treaty was signed by Iturbide and Viceroy. As such, Mexicans were granted their demands, and the Spanish were forced to leave Mexico. In 1822, Iturbide was declared Mexico’s emperor.
Archduke Maximilian in Mexico
Maximilian favored the need to share power within Mexico by electing a democratic congress that would address Mexicans demands. He supported many reforms initiated by President Juarez, including religious freedom and land reforms. Despite being a liberal, he was seen as an enemy to the liberals as he was good to the conservatives. As such, he was left with few friends, and later the liberals under President Juarez’s reign executed Maximilian for being a traitor along with the other two Mexican supporters.
Aranda Jr, José F. “Mexican.” Western American Literature 53.1 (2018): 49-52., https://muse.jhu.edu/article/696116/summary
Archer, Christon I. “Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821).” The Encyclopedia of War (2011).