Totalitarian Regime and Propaganda
The time of the totalitarian regime emerged during the World War 1.It marked the age where economies were set as one autonomous entity for each European state. In other words, all the states controlled their economy fully. The states focused on enhancing public development and the private sectors (Mazzarella and William 94). The regimes shared many similarities. For instance, states were ruled by one leader with one political party. Also, they emphasized on total loyalty to the government and its leader and denied individual rights and the press and media freedom. As a result, states used culture, art, and mass communications in order to spread propaganda. More so, they encouraged a high birthrate and used secret police officers to terrorize the public. Furthermore, Nazis, Fascists and Bolsheviks used propaganda tosuppress the civil rights. Police officers were also used to torture and arrest journalist in order to secure power. Contrary to the perceived negative influence of that regime, Europeans in Italy, Germany and Russia/Soviet Union supported the rise of totalitarian regimes in their states in the 1920s and 1930s and the tactics that Nazis, Fascists and Bolsheviks used to secure power
The states allowed one political party, which they percieved as the optimal strategy to avoid the rebellion within the states. They literally emphasized on one political party with aim of economic growth (Mazzarella and William 109). Germany was ruled by the Adolf Hitler while Italy was ruled by Benito Mussolini and the SovietUnion by Joseph Stalin.However, they had different political approach towards governing their states.For instance, Germany employed Nazism, the Soviet Union used Communism while Italy used Fascism. This type of rule was the imperialists’ ideological approach. The proponents of the imperialism, Marxism- Lenin, assert that, imperialism is a significant strategy to gain economic growth. However,these views on imperialism were criticized by Karl Marx notion on one political party that, Marxism-Lenin notion supports workers (civil society)beings oppressed by the elites (leading regime). Also, Machiavelli noted that the end is the core principle of leadership that this totalitarian government used to enhance their economic development.
The totalitarian government denied the individual rights and the freedom of the press (Mazzarella and William, 110). This strategy was more selective and surgical for the dictators. The argument lies on the principles of Mazzarella and William (111), “Who gets what, when and how”. The only way, through which these governments ensured that theyremain in power, was to apply hard power. For instance, when Benito Mussolini ascended to powers, with the help of the pope, he changed the previous slogan “Believe! Obey! Fight!” and began rewarding leaders and suppressed the freedom of the citizen to go on strike. Further, the Fascists criticize the socialist’s movement of communism on the ground that, the communists allowed creation of classed society and also allowed the international interventions into national affairs. The Fascists supported society but with the defined classes. Karl Marx argues that elites within the society aimed at supporting agenda of majority only when they knew that the resultwas to exploit the mass. Furthermore, Europeans felt that the state could save them.For instance,unemployed person said, “Today, am experiencing this kind of life for the first time, I think that, I should do away with myself, I feel to take gas and blow up myself, or rather jump into the river, or I leap from some high point. . . .Will I really come to that option? I do not know.” (Mazzarella and William 106)
What tactics did the Nazis, Fascists and Bolsheviks use to secure power
The strategic plan which the totalitarian regimes leaders employed was the use of propaganda. For instance, after Hitler ascended to power in 30th January, 1933, Nazi adopted propaganda as a political strategy to influence the public towards their demand. The Nazi started massive killing of Journalists, arrests and other atrocities (Manent, Pierre 135). From Dietrich’s court judgment during the Ministries Trial in Nuremberg in 1949, it was evident that. “…propaganda was used to dignify the perception of the people concerning the campaign of persecution, murder and persecution that they practiced. The Press was influenced by the existing politically system.They expressed anti-Semitism and were not designed to unite the German people in the war … … (The directives) clearly expressed their concern on the purpose which aimed to create intensive enmity between Germans and Jews, to figure out the measures taken and to be taken against them, and to forfeit any doubts which may arise to the justice.”(McLeod and Hugh 193).
Propaganda was used by the Bolshevik to propel the rebellion that started that threatened Soviet-Russiaalliance (McLeod and Hugh, 194). Propaganda was structured not anti-Bolshevik revolutionary; it was pragmatically based on the reformists’ideals. The myths employed did not give justification of Kronsdat. The myths behind the Kronsdat were that it was led by white General and the aim was to restore the previous atrocities. The government doctored the myths by its agent, General Kozlovsky said who mentioned that, “before I went to the district, my fellow comrades rushing out with their revolvers, they claimed that, it was an atrocity lie; the sailors had mutinied, it was justified that it was naval revolt led by the soviet…” (Manent and Pierre 139).However, Kronstadt was not opposed to Bolshevik.It was only a strategy to horrify Stalinism. Thus, they exploited majority and infringed individual rights.
Therefore, the situation turned critical than what the European thought it would be. The government changed and started preying on its own citizens. Citizens felt betrayed by the government. It was characterized by leaders acquiring resources and a warding their cronies. However, the use of propaganda was employed by all these state leaders in order to remain in power and confuse their citizens.
Manent, Pierre.”The Crisis of Liberalism.” Journal of Democracy 25.1 (2014): 131-141. Print
Mazzarella, William. “Totalitarian Tears: Does the Crowd Really Mean It?.”Cultural Anthropology 30.1 (2015): 91-112. Print
McLeod, Hugh. “Religion, Politics and Sport in Western Europe, c. 1870–1939.” Religion, Identity and Conflict in Britain: From the Restoration to the Twentieth Century: Essays in Honour of Keith Robbins 100 (2016): 195. Print