Sample History Paper on The Battle of Sand Creek

Introduction

The Battle of Sand Creek (b) from the Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News (1864) is an account written by a soldier who took part in The Battle of Sand Creek on 29th November 1964. He gives the first-hand account of what happened before and during the attack of the Native Indians at the Sand Creek. The soldier also justifies the attack of the Native Indians. The Battle of Sand Creek (b) from the Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News (1864) is a primary source because the information comes from the person who was present during the battle. Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s is the 6th chapter from the book: Colorado; A History of the Centennial State. This is a secondary source because the information comes from a person who was not present during the occurrence of the attack on the Native Indians. The work borrows from other primary sources available.

The Battle of Sand Creek from the Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News (1864)

Summary

The Rocky Mountain News gives an analogy of what transpired before, during and after the Battle of Sand Creek. The source seems to have been part of the team that participated in the attack against the Native Indians. He talks of the prior preparations that were made by the leader Colonel Chivington. The many companies of soldiers numbering about two hundred and fifty were divided into various battalions with commanders in charge. The troops have one mission: to exterminate the native Indians. Under their leader, Chivington, they have less time to prepare and attack the village without being noticed. They covered forty-two miles within eight hours in order to arrive and attack before daybreak. According to this report, the army attacked the Indian village in the morning, a battle that proceeded until 3 o’clock in the afternoon. By that time, the Indian warriors and chiefs had been killed. However, the narrator notes that a number may have escaped alive from the battle. The Indian warriors tried their best to fight the American soldiers; however, they were overpowered, leading to high casualties. The soldiers enjoyed their conquest, carrying away everything valuable they found. The narrator brags of the achievement by the Colorado soldiers.

Analysis

The Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News seeks to tell the story of the conquest by the Colorado army as led by Colonel Chivington. The article starts by reporting of the reasons for the move southwards by the Americans: they wanted resources for their general livelihood. The author decides to use a person who took part in the war expeditions in order to tell the story of their conquest against the Indian villages. The main intention may have been to show readers the historical conquest by the Colorado volunteers. The narrator brags of the achievement made by the soldiers who only volunteered to serve their interests within a short time. The article tells the story to the people about the pride that the Colorado soldiers had by conquering the Indian village.

Evaluation

The author of this article is the Rocky Mountain News. The author was a renowned news agency during the Indian wars. Information from this media helped in directing the public opinion against the Indian communities in the various parts of American territories. The Rocky Mountain News has been quoted in various instances where it called for the extermination of the Indian people in the various settlements. For these reasons, the author seems biased in favor of the soldiers and their conquest against the Indians. The evidence seems reliable but it seems to tell the story from the biased perspective of the soldiers who enjoyed the killing of the Indian tribes.[1] Therefore, the author can be an authority on matters of the soldiers’ aggression and atrocities against the Indians.

Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s

Summary

Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s is a research article that informs the reader on the historical nature of the struggle between the Americans and the Native Indians. The text talks of the self-interest by the white American businessmen and the ordinary citizens. According to the author, the struggle between the American Army and the Indians led to the victories and losses from both ends. Americans could not literally take over the Indian territories because of some reasons. However, they knew that the Indians were obstacles that they would easily defeat with time. They came up with different agreements and treaties that seemed to favor the Indians; however, such treaties forced on the Indians who had no option but to give in. throughout the 1800s, some of the Indian Chiefs and warriors who fought against the US Army were White Antelope and Black Kettle. They led their followers in negotiating treaties, many of which worked against them. John Chivington and other Army commanders had directed their minds towards exterminating the Indians no matter the cost. They committed atrocities and defended the same throughout their lives. When these commanders died, people celebrated them in churches as heroes.

Analysis

The intended audience for this text seems to be the readers who are interested in the reality of the happenings during the 19th century between the white American soldiers and the Native Indians. It is a research article that gives a balanced overview of the different primary sources on what happened during the period. The author is a voice in the historical world because of the works already published. The credibility of the information comes from the many primary sources used in the text. All of the primary sources are accessible to date and can be found by simple online researches. The articles bring a balanced view of the many happenings during the oppression of the Native Indians by the Colorado soldiers. The reader is able to read both sides of the stories.

Evaluation

Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s is a secondary source of information; however, it seems reliable because of the primary sources that it borrows from. All of the primary sources are verifiable and available by the readers. The readers are able to get a balanced view of the fights between the Colorado Soldiers and the Indian Warriors. The text fails to show biases because it researches on the intentions and the actual battles between the parties.[2]

Comparison

The Battle of Sand Creek and Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s are good sources of information that narrates the battles between the White American army and the Native Indians. The Battle of Sand Creek is a primary source that shows the actual happenings during the attack on the Indian village. The strength of this information comes from the fact that it comes from a person who took part in the expedition against the Indians. The weakness comes from the fact that the information comes from a biased author who is known to have been supporting the killing of the Indians. Therefore, the reader fails to read and understand the feelings of the Indians. Exterminate them: Natives 1850s – 1890s is a secondary source that gives a balanced view of the historical battles involving the same parties. The strength comes from the balanced historical context that puts all battles and treaties in perspective.[3] The reader has the ability to assess the viewpoints of the Indians and their feelings as well as the Colorado soldiers. The weakness comes from the other sources that are not verifiable.

 

Bibliography

Jacoby, Karl. “The Broad Platform of Extermination’: Nature and Violence in the Nineteenth

Century North American Borderlands.” Journal of Genocide Research 10, June 2008.

Jahoda, Gloria. The Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals 1813–1855. New

York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975.

Kiernan, Blood, and Soil; Mann, Dark Side of Democracy; Samuel Totten and Robert K

Hitchcock, eds., Genocide of Indigenous Peoples (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2011).

[1] Karl Jacoby, ‘The Broad Platform of Extermination’: Nature and Violence in the Nineteenth Century North American Borderlands (Journal of Genocide Research 10, June 2008), 249–267.

 

[2] Kiernan, Blood, and Soil; Mann, Dark Side of Democracy; Samuel Totten and Robert K Hitchcock, eds., Genocide of Indigenous Peoples (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2011), 89-102.

[3] Gloria Jahoda, The Trail of Tears: The Story of the American Indian Removals 1813–1855. New York (NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975), 90-98.